the

Saint Lawrence Seaway

thus a lawrence seaway is a system of

locks canals and channels in canada and

the united states that permit

ocean-going vessels to travel from the

Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far

inland as the western end of Lake

Superior the Seaway is named for the San

Lawrence River which flows from Lake

Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean legally

the Seaway extends from Montreal Quebec

to Lake Erie and includes the Welland

Canal this sectioned upstream of the

Seaway is not continuous canal rather he

consists of several stretches of

navigable channels within the river a

number of locks and canals along the

banks of the San Lawrence River to

bypass several rapids in dams along the

way a number of the Loxy managed by the

Sint Lawrence Seaway Management

Corporation in Canada and others in the

United States by the San Lawrence Seaway

Development Corporation the two bodies

together advertised the sea where's part

of highway h2o the section of the river

downstream of Montreal which is fully

within Canadian jurisdiction is

regulated by the Offices of Transport

Canada in the Port of Quebec history the

San Lawrence Seaway was preceded by a

number of other canals in 1871 locks on

the Sint Lawrence allow transit of

vessels 186 feet long 44 feet 6 in wide

and 9 feet deep the Welland Canal

constructed in 1830 at the time allowed

transit of vessels 142 feet long 26 feet

wide and 10 feet deep but it was

generally too small to allow passage of

larger ocean-going ships the first

proposals for a bi-national

comprehensive deep waterway along the

San Lawrence were made in the 1890s in

the following decades developers

proposed a hydropower project as

inseparable from the Seaway the various

governments and Seaway supporters

believed that the deeper water to be

created by the hydro project was

necessarily to make the Seaway channels

feasible for ocean-going ships United

States proposals for development up to

and including the first world war met

with little interest from the Canadian

federal government but the two national

government submitted sand lawrence plans

to a group for study by the early 1920s

both the wooden burden report and the

International Joint Commission

recommended the project although the

liberal Prime Minister William Lyon

Mackenzie King was reluctant to proceed

in part because of opposition to the

project in Quebec in 1932 he and the

United States representatives signed a

treaty of intent this treaty was

submitted to the United States Senate in

November 1932 and hearings continued

until a vote was taken on March 14th

1934 the majority voted in favor of the

treaty but it failed to gain the

necessary two-thirds vote for

ratification subsequent attempts between

the governments in the 1930s to forge an

agreement came to naught due to

opposition by the Ontario government of

Mitchell Hepburn and that of Quebec in

1936

Jhansi bukey ma head of the Great Lakes

harbors association and a member of the

Great Lakes tidewater Commission was

among a delegation of eight from the

Great Lakes States to meet at the White

House with you as President Franklin D

Roosevelt to get his support of the

Seaway concept bukey Marin st. lawrence

seaway proponents were convinced that

such a nautical link would lead to

development of the communities and

economies of the Great Lakes region by

enabling ocean-going ships in this

period grain exports to Europe were

highly important to the national economy

along with other commodities the

negotiations on the treaty resumed in

1938 and by January 19

40 substantial agreement was reached

between Canada and the United States by

1941 President Roosevelt and Prime

Minister Mackenzie King made an

executive agreement to build the joint

hydro and navigation works but this

failed to receive the assent of the U as

Congress proposals for the Seaway were

met with resistance primary opposition

came from interests representing

existing harbors on the Atlantic and

Gulf Coast's and internal waterways and

from the railroads associations the

railroads carried Freight and goods

between the coastal ports and the Great

Lakes cities after 1945 proposals to

introduce tolls to the Seaway were not

sufficient to gain support by the you

ask Congress for the project growing

impatient and with Ontario desperate for

the power to be generated by

hydroelectricity Canada began to

consider going it alone quote this

ceased the imagination of Canadians

engendering a groundswell of Sint

Lawrence nationalism P Canadian Prime

Minister Lewis Street LaRon advised US

president harry s truman on September 28

1951 that Canada was unwilling to wait

for the United States and would build a

Seaway alone

the Canadian legislature authorized the

founding of the st. Lawrence Seaway

Authority on December 21st of that year

fueled by this support Street lawrence

administration decided over the course

of 1951 and 1952 to construct the

waterway alone combined with the moses

saunders power dam the International

Joint Commission issued an order of

approval for joint construction of the

dam in October 1952 u-s senate debate on

the bill began on january 12 1953 and a

bill emerged from the House of

Representatives Committee of Public

Works On February 22nd

19:54 it received approval by the Senate

and the House by May 1954 the first

positive action to enlarge the Seaway

was taken on May 13th 1954 when u.s.

President Dwight d Eisenhower signed the

Wiley Dondero Seaway Act to authorized

joint construction and to establish the

st. Lawrence Seaway Development

Corporation as the u.s. Authority the

need for cheap haulage of Quebec

Labrador iron ore was one of the

arguments that finally swung the balance

in favor of the Seaway groundbreaking

ceremonies took place in Massena New

York on August 10th 1954 the Year Jhansi

bukey ma was appointed by Eisenhower to

the five-member sent Lawrence Seaway

advisory board in May 1957 the

connecting channels project was begun by

the United States Army Corps of

Engineers by 1959 bukey ma was on board

the u-s Coast Guard Cutter maple for the

first trip through the US locks that

opened up the Great Lakes to ocean-going

ships on April 25th 1959 large deep

draft ocean vessels began streaming to

the heart of the North American

continent through the Seaway a project

which had been supported by every

administration from Woodrow Wilson

through Eisenhower in the United States

dry and our down alien worked with the

u-s secretary of state on canadian

united states issues regarding the

Seaway persevering through 15 years to

gain passage by Congress of the Seaway

Act he later became president of the

Great Lakes Street Laurens Association

to promote Seaway Development to benefit

the American heartland the Seaway was

heavily promoted by the Eisenhower

administration who were concerned with

the it's locus of control the Seaway

opened in 1959 and

cost see 470 million dollars three

hundred and thirty six point two million

dollars of which was paid by the

Canadian government queen elizabeth ii

and president dwight d eisenhower

formally opened the Seaway with the

short cruise aboard Royal Yacht

Britannia after addressing crowds in

sindh Lambert Quebec 22,000 workers were

employed at one time or another on the

project a 2300 mile long superhighway

for ocean freighters port of Milwaukee

director Harry C broccoli forecast just

before the Seaway opened in 1959 at the

st. Lawrence Seaway will be the greatest

single development of the century in its

effects on Milwaukee's future growth and

prosperity

Lester Olson president of the Milwaukee

association of Commerce said the

magnitude and potential of the st.

Lawrence Seaway and the power project

stir the imagination of the world the

Seaways opening is often credited with

making the Erie Canal obsolete and

causing the severe economic decline of

several cities along the canal in

upstate New York by the turn of the 20th

century the Erie Canal had already been

largely supplanted by the railroads

which had been constructed across New

York and could carry Freight more

quickly and cheaply the economic decline

of upstate New York was precipitated by

numerous factors only some of which had

to do with the San Lawrence Seaway under

the Canada marine act the Canadian

portions of the Seaway were set up with

a non-profit corporate structure this

legislation also introduced changes to

the federal ports Great Lakes and see

where shipping generates 3.4 billion

dollars in business revenue annually in

the u.s. in 2002 ships moved 222 million

tons of cargo per year overseas

shipments mer Steven Van Steele an

outbound grain

accounted for fifteen point four million

tons six point nine percent of the total

cargo moved in 2004 see where grain

exports accounted for about 3.6 percent

of the u.s. overseas grain shipments

according to the u.s grains council in a

typical year Seaway steel imports

account for around six percent of the

u.s. annual total the toll revenue

obtained from ocean vessels is about 25

to 30 percent of cargo revenue the port

of Duluth shipped just over 2.5 million

metric tons of grain which is less than

the port typically moved in the decade

before the Seaway opened Lake Superior

to deep draught ocean-going vessels in

1959 international changes have affected

shipping through the Seaway Europe is no

longer a major grain importer big US

export shipments are now going to South

America Asia and Africa these

destinations make Gulf and West Coast

ports more critical to 21st century

grain exports referring to the Seaway

project a Iowa State University

economics professor who specialized in

transportation issues said it probably

did make sense out about the time it was

constructed and conceived but since then

everything has changed

certain Seaway users have been concerned

about the low water levels of the Great

Lakes that have occurred since 2010

expansion proposal the Panama Canal was

completed in 1914 and also serves

ocean-going traffic in the 1950s Seaway

designers chose not to build the locks

to match the size of ships permitted by

the 1914 locks at the Panama Canal known

as the Panamax limit instead the

see--where locks were built to match the

smaller locks of Welland Canal which

opened in 1932 the Seaway locks permit

passage of a ship 740 feet long

78 feet feet wide the u-s army corps of

engineers did a study to expand the sind

lawrence seaway

but the plan was scrapped in 2011

because of tight budgets the Seaway

locks are planned for expansion in 2030

the expansion would allow container

ships to travel into the Great Lakes the

maximum height clearance would be 150

feet because of the Mackinac Bridge

Ambassador Bridge Blue Water Bridge and

the Gordie Howe International Bridge the

maximum water draught would be 35 feet

or 36 feet compared to 27 feet now the

Port of Montreal at the eastern end of

the sind Lawrence Seaway allows 36 foot

drafts in the estuary the proposed new

Seaway Max locks would be 1,000 by 110

feet and would allow Panamax sized ships

to access the Great Lakes only two

limits would hinder the largest Panamax

ships from entering the Seaway ships

could be no higher than 150 feet above

the waterline and could have the water

draught of no more than 37 feet the new

Seaway Max locks would permit a ship 45

feet longer and four feet wider than the

Panamax ships permitted by the Panama

canal's 1914 locks logs in the San

Lawrence River there are seven locks in

the st. Lawrence River portion of the

Seaway from downstream to upstream they

are st. Lambert locks and Lambert QC

coats and Katherine Lock st. Catherine

QC boo Hahn or locks malach Bell you see

at forty five point three oh three 500

degrees north seventy three point nine

two six eight oh six degrees west 45

point three oh three 500 minus seventy

three point nine two six eight oh six

and forty five point three one six six

nine four degrees north seventy three

point nine

nade 500 degrees west forty five point

three one six six nine four minus

seventy three point nine one eight 500

Snell lock Messina and why Eisenhower

lock Messina and why Iroquois lock

Iroquois under forty four point eight

300 degrees north 75 point three one 300

degrees west forty four point eight

three arrow at minus seventy five point

three one 300 locks in the Welland Canal

there are eight locks on the Welland

Canal for its and Catharines Ontario

three eight furled Ontario and one at

Port Colborne Ontario lock channel

dimensions and other useful data the

size of vessels that can traverse the

Seaway is limited by the size of locks

locks on the st. Lawrence anon the

Welland Canal are seven hundred and

sixty six feet long

eighty feet wide and thirty feet deep

the maximum allowed vessel size is

slightly smaller seven hundred and forty

feet long 78 feet wide and twenty six

point five feet deep many vessels

designed for use on the Great Lakes

following the opening of the Seaway were

built to the maximum size permissible by

the locks known informally as Seaway max

to see way max large vessels of the lake

freighter fleet are built on the lakes

and cannot travel downstream beyond the

Welland Canal on the remaining Great

Lakes these ships are constrained only

by the largest lock on the Great Lakes

waterway the per lock at the Soo Locks

which is 1,200 feet long 110 feet wide

and 32 feet deep a vessels draft is

another obstacle to passage on the

Seaway particularly in connecting

waterways such as the San Lawrence River

the depth in the channels of the Seaway

is 41 feet downstream of Quebec City 35

feet between Quebec City and shaolin's

37 five

to Montreal and 27 feet upstream of

Montreal channel depths and limited lock

sizes mean that only 10% of current

ocean-going ships which have been built

much larger than in the 1950s can't

reverse the entire Seaway proposals to

expand the Seaway dating from as early

as the 1960s have been rejected since

the late 20th century as too costly

in addition researchers policymakers and

the public are much more aware of the

environmental issues that have

accompanied Seaway development on a

reluctant to open the Great Lakes to

more invasions of damaging species as

well as associated issues along the

canals and river questions have been

raised as to whether such infrastructure

costs could ever be recovered lower

water levels in the Great Lakes have

also posed problems for some vessels in

recent years and pose greater issues to

communities industries and agriculture

in the region while the Seaway is

currently mostly used for shipping bulk

cargo the possibility of its use for

large-scale container shipping is under

consideration as well if the expansion

project goes ahead feeder ships would

take containers from the port of a

Swiger in Lake Ontario in upstate New

York to Milford International Terminal

in Nova Scotia for transfer to larger

ocean-going ships a useful website hosts

measurements of wind water levels and

water temperatures a real-time

interactive map of Seaway locks vessels

and ports is available at the NOAA

funded Great Lakes water level dashboard

compiles statistics on water depth at

various points along the Seaway ecology

to create a navigable channel through

the long Sioux Rapids and to allow

hydroelectric stations to be established

immediately upriver from Cornwall

Ontario and Messina New York Lakes and

Lawrence was created behind

it required the condemnation acquisition

by the government of all the properties

of six villages and three Hamlet's in

Ontario these are now collectively known

as the lost villages the area was

flooded on the 1st of July 1958 creating

the lake there was also in London on the

New York side of the border and the

village of Louisville Landing was

submerged

a notable adverse environmental effect

of the operation of the Seaway has been

the introduction of numerous invasive

species of aquatic animals into the

Great Lakes basin the zebra mussel has

been most damaging in the Great Lakes

and through its invasion of related

rivers waterways and city water

facilities the Seaway along with the

Sint Lawrence River it passes through

also provides opportunities for outdoor

recreation such as boating camping

fishing and scuba diving

unfortunately invasive species and

artificial water level controls imposed

by the sea wave have had a negative

impact on recreational fishing of note

the old powerhouse near lock 23 became

an attractive site for scuba divers the

submerged stone building has become

covered with barnacles and is home to an

abundance of underwater life the Seaway

passes through the San Lawrence River

which provides a number of diver

prex within recreational scuba

limits the region also offers technical

diving with some wrecks lying at 240

feet surprisingly the water temperature

can be as warm as 75 degrees Fahrenheit

during the mid to late summer months the

first 10 feet of Lake Ontario is warmed

and enters the st. Lawrence River as the

fast-moving water body has no

thermocline circulation on the 12th of

July 2010 retial EU ran aground after

losing power near the cote st. Catherine

law the grounding punctured the fuel

tank spilling an estimated 200

tons of diesel fuel covering

approximately 500 square meters the

Seaway and the lock were shut down to

help contain the spill international

trade and tourism the Seaway is

important for American and Canadian

international trade the Seaway handles

40 to 50 million annual tons of cargo

about 50% of the cargo carried travels

to and from international ports in

Europe Middle East and Africa the rest

comprises coastal trade or short sea

shipping between various American and

Canadian ports among international

shippers are found Pearl's Jim maintains

a fleet of dry bulk only vessels that

transit every two weeks from the Dutch

town of a modern to Duluth Minnesota

Fenton of group private international

dry bulk only ocean transportation group

was routes between the port of antwerp

and sorrell quebec even in wintertime

world shipping Inc a privately owned and

truly global logistics operation can for

now who a subsidiary of Canfor which

does dry bulk only in registers most of

its vessels in Cyprus American steamship

company who a subsidiary of the general

American transportation corporation

brand logistics which was formed from

the acquisition of La Lakes towing

limited and does not ship containers

McHale marine headquartered in Hamilton

provides service to Arctic ports group

there's games owner of the MV camilla

des ganas an Arctic steamer the Port of

Montreal is the site of operations of

MERS climb a unit of the AP Mali Merce

group Mediterranean shipping company

company maritime defragment company

general maritime a French transfer

orientation based multinational our

image Quebec has stevedoring operations

in Bakke MO there can coach Chicago Kurt

st. Catherine gaspé

hakuna Hamilton Mitani Asha WA point Oh

pick Port Colborne Port neuf Quebec

Rimouski sag nee sceptile's Sorel Tracy

Street Katherine's and other ports in

the maritime provinces of Canada dot the

sind Lawrence Seaway is the main route

for Ontario grain exports to overseas

markets its fees of publicly known and

were limited in 2013 to an increase of

3% a trend pilot is required for any

foreign trade vessel and the employment

of these skilled personnel follows the

law of supply and demand a set of rules

and regulations are available to help

transit commercial vessel transit

information is hosted on the u.s and

Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation

website since 1997 international cruise

liners have been known to transit the

Seaway the Hapag Lloyd Christopher

Columbus carried 400 passengers to

Duluth Minnesota that year since then

the number of annual Seaway cruising

passengers has increased to 14,000 every

year more than 2000 recreational boats

have more than 20 feet and want on

transit the Seaway the tails have been

fixed for 2013 at $30 per lock except

for the Welland Canal where $30 pays for

all eight blocks between Lake Erie and

Lake Ontario law ages are scheduled 12

hours a day between the hours of 7:00

o'clock and 1900 from June 15th to

September 15th a list of organizations

that serve the Seaway in some fashion

such as chambers of commerce and

municipal Oporto authorities is

available at the SLS DC web site a 56

page electronic Great Lakes

sir Lawrence Seaway system directory is

published by harbor house publishers map

map of the North American Great Lakes

and the st. Lawrence Seaway from 1915

depicting the entire length beginning at

the Gulf of st. Lawrence Indiana of the

east to the westernmost terminus at Lake

Superior

this map is in the public domain and is

available at Wikimedia Commons in

several resolutions