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Liver Anatomy - Accessory Organs Part 1

hello and welcome to another video in

this video I'm gonna cover the anatomy

of the accessory organs in the digestive

system so now that we've covered the

anatomy of the different structures in

the digestive system we have some organs

we call accessory organs for assisting

the digestion of the food we eat and

those are deliver the gallbladder and

the pancreas but I also mentioned the

spleen as well even though it's not a

part of the digestive system but a part

of the lymphatic system the spleen along

with most of the intestines and the

stomach are what we call intraperitoneal

organs but again I'll talk more about

this later

so in this video I'm gonna cover the

topography of the liver and also uncover

the margins and the groove of the liver

and also the porta potties with the

ligaments you will find a connected to

the liver and then in my next video in

part 2 of the accessory organs I'll talk

about the structures and the walls of

the bile pathway and also the typography

instructor to the pancreas and then the

typography and structures of the spleen

so we'll start with the liver so the

liver or the hip are in Latin is the

largest internal organs we have in the

body is here just in case you didn't

know and it sits on the right hand side

of the belly and waits about when half

kilograms is quite heavy the liver has a

lot of vital functions in the body but

here are some general ones it has a

digestive function by by producing bile

but also processes the nutrients you

absorb it detoxification transforming

the potential harmful substances such as

drugs and alcohol into harmless products

to be eliminated in the bile or or urine

it also produces cholesterol which is

used for production of hormones and and

also vitamin D and also many nutrients

are stored in the liver including

certain fats and glycogen and this

stored glycogen can be used in case of

low blood sugar for example so it has

many functions and as always looking at

the anatomy of the organs I'd like to

start with the topography for better

understanding so if we

the lines and look at the whole auto-pay

meaning it meaning the position of the

liver in relation to the body as a whole

the liver actually covers the whole

upper level of the abdominal cavity

within the ribs and you will find it in

the right hip konjac region and at the

epigastric region and also extending to

the left hip a cognac region and then

when looking at the scatter tapia of the

liver the superior border as you see

right here starts at the level of the

10th rib and then extends up to the

level of the fourth intercostal space

and then goes to the fifth intercostal

space left to the sternum and then it

ends at the sixth intercostal space so

that's the superior border

and then the inferior border is here and

also starts at the 10th rib at the right

side and goes up to the level of the

eighth and ninth rib and then extends up

to where the cartilage of the ninth rib

meets the cartilage of the of the ninth

rib and then ends at the sixth

intercostal space so as you see it it

lies inside the ribcage and then

posteriorly you'll find it between the

ninth thoracic vertebra to the eleventh

thoracic vertebra so that is the

skeletal p of the liver now go over to

the scene taupey of the liver meaning

its position in relation to other organs

and we look at this superior border

first this this surface we call it the

diaphragmatic surface because you will

find diaphragm resting on it as you see

here and then the inferior border we

call this one the visceral surface

meaning the surface towards different

organs so if we zoom in you will find

the pilaris

of the stomach being very close to the

visceral surface of the liver but you

also find the upper part of the duodenum

you will find the colon you will find

the right kidney and you also find the

esophagus in the upper part of the

stomach lying on the superior end of the

liver so if you ask me it's very

strategically well placed in the body

now continuing with the anatomy of the

liver if you look at anteriorly you will

see a distinct ligament in the middle

called the ligament

falciform oh and this ligament separates

the right and left lobe and so the liver

has two margins right you have the

inferior margin projecting at downwards

and this margin is pretty sharp in shape

and then if you look at it posteriorly

you'll find the rounded posterior margin

which is not as sharp as the inferior

one and what's interesting here is that

the whole liver is covered by ligaments

and fat

except for this area right here on the

posterior margin called the area now

Buddha or the bear area which is

directly in contact with the diaphragm

because remember the diaphragm lies on

top of the liver so now that we're

looking at the liver posteriorly let's

go ahead and look at its distinct

futures back there and we have three

important grooves on the posterior

surface the first one is the right Sagat

all groove and the right side no group

is formed by two other groups you will

find on the visceral surface of the

liver and here I want you to imagine the

inferior vena cava running in this

direction forming this groove right so

the right psychical groove goes like

that it is formed by the fossa for the

gallbladder this is the gold band right

here and it's also formed by the fossa

for the inferior vena cava so that's the

right site or groove it separates the

right lobe from all the other lobes

you'll find on the liver and then we

have the left site or grooving and to

understand this groove you need to know

the ligaments down here so down here we

have the ligamentum teres hypothesis or

the round ligament and this long

ligament right here is called the

ligamentum venosum

and these two ligaments form the left

circle groove which separates the left

lobe from the rest of the lobes and then

finally we had can see one more groove

called the transverse groove and the

transverse groove lies directly on what

is called the Porta hepatica and can in

many ways use the word transverse groove

as a synonym for porta potti qey and I

will elaborate porta potti can in a

second but let's just look

deeper into the transverse crew so the

transverse groove goes like this and

separates the cow that load from the

quadrat lobe so when you look at the

liver anteriorly you will see two lobes

right but posteriorly you can see four

lobes you have the right lobe left lobe

the cow dead lobe and the quadrat lobe

now I want to change the focus a little

bit over to porta hepatica so the porta

hepatis

is a short deep depression and there's a

few things that goes out from this place

and the first thing is gonna be you can

find the common hepatic duct coming out

from it you also find the hepatic portal

vein and they have partic artery profit

we also find some hepatic lymph nodes

and also some nerves called the hepatic

plexus coming out from it and they're

all embraced by the

hepato duodenal ligament if you if you

imagine and it starts from a HEPA and

then it goes to the duodenum therefore

it's called the hip out we'll duodenal

ligaments so the liver is protected

right it's protected by something called

tuna Coffee browser which is a fibrous

sheet and then on top of it is covered

by something called the peritoneal I'll

talk more about the peritoneum in my

next video but imagine this is a

vertical section of the abdominal cavity

right the peritoneum has two parts that

you have you got a partial per genome in

green which covers the surrounding walls

of the abdominal cavity and then you

have the visceral peritoneum which

covers the organs inside the abdominal

cavity here in blue so not only is the

liver covered by tunic of a browser the

fibrous layer but it's also covered by

the visceral peritoneum also called the

tunica serosa because the puritan even

forms a serious membrane which reduces

the friction of a surrounding structure

so it's really good to have this

visceral peritoneum covering the liver

as well but the whole liver is not

covered there there's actually a place

called Arianna I remember I mentioned

this earlier the the bare area which is

in direct

with the diaphragm now to understand the

anatomy of the liver fully you now only

need to know the ligaments that connects

the liver to the diaphragm up there and

the ligaments that connects the liver to

the two other organs so let's let's look

at the ligaments around the liver in a

little detail so the ligaments from the

liver to the diaphragm are three or four

because you have a dick state and since

they're here red they right and left and

you have four ligaments connecting the

liver to other organs so let's look at

the ligaments towards the diaphragm

first the first ligament is and tearily

called the ligamentum false appointment

connecting the liver to the anterior

wall and then if we remove the diaphragm

we'll see the two distinct ligaments on

either side connected to the falciform

ligament in the middle called the

ligamentum Coronado and the ligamentum

corner dream connects the liver to the

diaphragm and then again just to remind

you here in the middle is the area nada

you'll see the corner ligaments

surrounding it so if you look at the

liver superiorly you'll see that the

coronary ligament surrounds the area now

though all right so there is one more

ligament here called the ligamentum

triangular the triangular ligament on

either side you can see that looks

triangular so this is the left one they

recommend in triangular is a nice term

and then this is the right one the

ligamentum triangulated extreme the

extreme is right so that was all the

ligaments on the anterior superior side

now over two ligaments that goes from

the liver to the other organs these are

four ligaments and they all start from

porta potties I want you to keep that in

mind that all these ligaments start at

porta hepatis

so the first one is the ligamentum hip

out to Costa Rica and as the name says

it goes from the liver to the stomach or

in Latin goes from pepper to Kostich

that's why I guess in in hepatic

Astrakhan and then the next is the

common term hepato duodenal and going

from the porta hepatis of the liver to

the duodenum and this thing

contains the bile duct veins nerves

arteries and and things coming out from

the portal pass remember I mentioned

that earlier one talked about the

prototype artist at all the things

coming out from porta pottis lies within

the ligamentum hepato dog Nala and the

next we have the hepato Arenado erin

alice is kidney in Latin so it goes from

the liver to the kidney and the kidney

is behind here so it goes like this

and then we have the ligamentum teres

hepatitis B around ligament and this one

projects anteriorly and this one here

and extends from porta hepatis to the

umbilical ring or the navel so that was

it for the anatomy of the liver now the

part 2 of this video is going to be

mainly about these structures and walls

of the bowel pathway and and also the

pancreas and spleen