the

Earth's Systems And Their Interactions

in this video we're going to talk about

the earth

systems the goal is to identify the four

systems of the earth

and describe how they interact okay

earth is a very complex system although

it looks like

one large structure it actually got a

lot of things

going on a system is a set of

interconnected components that are

interacting

to form a unified whole so for example

an ecosystem so the organisms are

interconnected

and interacting so the concepts that you

need to recall here are

the food web food chain commensalism

mutualism etc

earth is defined as a closed system

so when we say a closed system there is

only an

exchange of heat or energy and no

exchange of matter for example the sun

gives energy

this energy reaches the earth but it

bounces back to the space

no exchange of matter means that nothing

or no

matter disappears it just spreads

out to other forms now earth has four

systems

number one is the lithosphere it came

from the greek word

lithos which means rocky the lithosphere

is the rocky portion of the earth next

we have hydrosphere came from the root

word

hydra or hydro meaning water third is

the atmosphere the atmosphere

came from the word atmos which means

steam

or vapor lastly we have the biosphere it

came from the root word

bio meaning life got it

so let's start with the lithosphere the

latest sphere includes the rod

the lithosphere includes the crust the

mantle and the core

that's why it's also called as the

crustal system

some books they call lithosphere as

geosphere

however there is a minor difference

between the lithosphere and the

geosphere so the lithosphere is rigid

and mechanically strong outer layer of

the earth

and it is divided into 12 major plates

on the other hand the geosphere is the

solid body of the earth so for this

class we're just going to use

lithosphere for the latest sphere

hydrosphere and atmosphere so we're

going to use lithosphere to avoid

confusion

one important process that happens in

the lithosphere

is the tectonic activity so the tectonic

activity

describes the interaction of huge slabs

of lithosphere

are commonly known as tectonic plates

these tectonic activities are the one

responsible

for some of the geologic events such as

earthquake volcanic eruption volcanic

formation

and it is driven by the earth's internal

heat it is said that the earth's

internal heat

flow to the surface is thought to be 80

due to mantle convection so mental

convection describes the movement of the

mantle

as it transfers heat from the inner core

to the lithosphere

next we have the hydrosphere this is the

total amount of solid

liquid and gaseous water on earth it

ranges

from 10 to 20 kilometers in thickness in

some books they have this other term or

other sphere

called cryosphere it is the frozen part

of water

but remember it still falls under

hydrosphere now the hydrosphere is about

seventy percent of the planet

and much of the water is in the form of

ocean water of this seventy percent

only three percent is fresh water and

ninety percent

is salty water one important process

that happens in the hydrosphere

is the water cycle so the water cycle

describes the continuous

movement of water on above and below the

surface of the earth so this is the

complete

water side so we're not going to focus

on this because that would be for

another lesson next we have the

atmosphere the atmosphere

is the body of gases that surrounds the

planet

so it is also called as the invisible

shield why because it simply protects

the earth from uv radiation the

atmosphere is located

close to the earth's surface where it is

most dense

so now let's talk about the composition

of the atmosphere the atmosphere is

composed of 78

nitrogen 21 oxygen and one percent

in active gases one example is

argon argon is just 0.9 percent

so what is the role of the atmosphere so

the atmosphere

supplies oxygen carbon dioxide

and nutrients to living organisms also

supplies water so remember water is

part of the hydrosphere this shows a

simple interaction

among the atmosphere and the hydrosphere

the atmosphere also protects the living

organisms

from extreme temperatures and excessive

uv radiation

so we have different kinds of uv

radiation we have the uvc

uvb and uva uvc has the shortest

wavelength

so it is easily reflected or deflected

by the atmospheric ozone uvb has the

largest effect

on the top layer of skin but don't worry

by staying at home

the exposure to uvb is less however

we have the uva so the uva

has the longest wavelength and therefore

it may penetrate

your house or any protection basically

that's why you use sunscreen

even at home so uva

is one of the source or the costs of

wrinkles

now let's go to the biosphere

now this biosphere includes all living

things

on planet okay animals humans

etc the earliest life form is about 3.5

to 3.7 billion years ago

and these are the microorganisms or

microbes

one type of microorganism that forms

are the prokaryotes these prokaryotes

survived

without oxygen and now we call them an

aerobic microorganisms in the biosphere

there are different ecological

communities or what we call

biomes some examples are the tropical

rainforests tundra

and the desert you can find some living

things on the desert

but you can't find them on tundras so

the biosphere

is considered as the carbon dioxide zinc

or the carbon sink of the earth so a

carbon sink is actually

aggressive wa that absorbs and stores

the atmosphere's carbon take note that

this

is not a carbon source it actually gets

the carbon now there are two types of

carbon zinc the natural and the

artificial so an example of natural

carbon zinc

is a tree okay or a forest they absorb

carbon dioxide from the air

artificial carbon sinks are of course

are of course

artificial carbon sinks are of course

man-made one example

is a process called artificial carbon

sequestration now this carbon sink

is important for the carbon cycle this

diagram

shows the carbon cycle again we're not

going to focus on this

the carbon cycle is the biogeochemical

cycle

by which carbon is exchanged among the

biosphere geosphere

hydrosphere and atmosphere of the earth

so basically

it's the natural way of reusing the

carbon atom so pause this video

and drink your water although the four

systems have their individual identities

there is important interaction between

them

there are 10 possible types of

interactions that could occur

within the earth system what so

four of these interactions are between

the events

and each of the earth's sphere this

could be represented by this figure

the double headed arrow indicates that

the cause and effect

relationships of these interactions go

in both directions

the event affects the hydrosphere but in

turn the hydrosphere

will give something so it's a mutual

relationship

between the event and the hydrosphere or

any other spheres

or any other systems okay so let's have

for example

an interaction between hydrosphere and

an event

on may 18 1980 mount saint helens

erupted so this is our event

this event altered the surrounding

environment in this case

the hydrosphere it could be the ocean

the river or

anything so maybe the water became

polluted i don't understand

i don't understand so you must remember

that one event

can affect many spheres at once the

eruption can affect the

atmosphere or the lithosphere so this

event

caused chemicals to form or to be

present in water this will provide

scientists the information that they

need to study

volcanic eruptions so that event

gave something new which is useful for

the people well at least

useful for the scientists

so this is important because volcanic

eruptions will continue to occur

and will have increasing impact on

humans

so you might get confused why is it not

event

than lithosphere or so why not event

than

biosphere because humans are part of the

biosphere

right yes in this scenario we're

describing the event

and the water so think of the sphere

that is directly

affected although both reasonings are

correct as i said

one event can affect many spheres at

once

my brain has completely turned to mush

there are six more interactions that

occur

among the spheres themselves the 10

types of interactions that can occur

within the earth system

often occur as a series of chain

reactions

so this means that one interaction leads

to another

interaction which leads to yet another

interaction

my computer was confused too just like

the example a while ago

the event hydrosphere that affects the

lithosphere or event hydrosphere

affects the biosphere it is like a

ripple effect or domino effect

so let's have for example volcano then

complex interaction so volcanoes

from the lithosphere may emit large of

quantities of sulfur dioxide which will

affect the atmosphere

air when these sulfur dioxide combined

with water

sulfuric and sulfurous acid form

okay so the rain may bring these acids

to the earth acidifying soils

lakes and rivers which are part of the

hydrosphere now the acidic water leeches

nutrients from the soil into the water

table

which makes the soil less fertile for

plants

the water supply would also be less

potable

in that one scenario three spheres

already

interacted but it's not yet done

this acid drain will soon fall to the

legs

and bodies of water which reduces the ph

of the water

so when the ph of water decreases making

it

more acidic some life forms might be

affected for example the fight of

plankton and zooplankton now if

photosynthesis

is reduced carbon dioxide can build up

and again

if carbon dioxide increases it will

result to

global warming which is the atmosphere

sir

this in turn may contribute to increased

melting of glaciers can you see how

one event affects the whole system

so humans can actually contribute

to this event that's what i have to say