the

Hip Joint - 3D Anatomy Tutorial

okay so this is a tutorial on the hip

joint so the hip joint is this joint

here between the head of the femur and

the acetabulum of the pelvis so this

joint is a ball-and-socket synovial

joint and it's a very stable stable

joint

unlike the shoulder joint which is very

mobile but not so stable this is the

opposite so it's very stable and not

quite as mobile as the glenohumeral

joint of the shoulder so there are

several movements which occur at this

joint

we've got abduction and adduction

we've got flexion and extension and

we've also got medial rotation and

lateral rotation and flexion extension

abduction and adduction can be combined

movements to produce circumduction so

there's several movements of this joint

so we'll just take a look at the

articular surfaces of this joint and

then we'll take a look at some of the

ligaments and that sort of thing so I'll

just remove the femur temporarily so we

can just take a look at the acetabulum

so you can see the acetabulum here and

it's this the circular depression in the

pelvis and there are two parts to this

you've got an articular part and an

articular part so you can see that

there's a depression right in the center

of the of the acetabulum and this is

called the acetabular fossa and this

part is non articular so just

surrounding it you can see there's this

um crescent-shaped sort of surface and

this is called the lunate surface

so I'll just zoom in a little bit

further and I'll draw that on for you so

you can see so what I'm drawing on here

is the lunate surface so this surrounds

the acetabular fossa and this is the

articulate part of the acetabulum

so the acetabular the acetabular fossa

is this bit in the middle which I'm just

scribbling on and just just you'll

notice that there's a little gap between

these two ends of the lunate surface so

this is called the acetabulum notch

so the acetabular notch is inferior on

the acetabulum so you've got the two

parts of the acetabulum of got the

articular part the the lunate surface

which is crescent-shaped and surrounds

the the margins of the acetabulum and

you've got the acetabular fossa

which is the non articular bit

depression in the center of the

acetabulum

so the acetabular fossa is the point of

attachment for the ligament of the head

of the femur which I'll show you in a

moment

so surrounding the the margins of the

acetabulum you've got a five row

cartilaginous collar so this is called

the acetabular labrum and this this

deepens the acetabulum so it stabilizes

the joint further and as it crosses the

this not chair the acetabular notch it

forms a ligament called the transverse

acetabular ligament so in the in the

acetabulum you've got the articular and

non articular parts and you've got the

Glen so the acetabular labrum

surrounding it which crosses the

acetabular notch inferiorly to form the

transverse acetabular ligament so I've

just switched over to a diagram to show

you the ligamentum teres or the ligament

to the head of the femur so this

ligament attaches at one end to the

acetabular fossa and it attaches on the

head of the femur on a point called the

fovea which is a non articular part of

the femur

so this ligament is quite important to

know about because it carries a branch

of the the obturator artery called the

acetabular branch of the obturator

artery and this provides a little bit of

the blood supply to the head of the

femur so here's a femur that's been

isolated and you can see this little

depression on the head of the famous

that's where the ligament of the head of

the femur attaches and this is called

the fovea and it's the non articular

part of the femur of the head of the

femur so I'll just give you a better

view of the acetabular notch I'll just

rotate the pelvis mount and you can see

this little notch here and so that's

where the transverse acetabular ligament

crosses so now that we've looked at the

articular surfaces of the hip joint we

can now talk about the joint capsule in

ligaments so here we're looking at the

joint capsule of the hip so we'll just

take a look at the attachments of this

joint capsule so you can see it attaches

on the margins of the acetabulum and

then it attaches to the transverse

ligament which lies over the acetabular

notch and it also blends with the

obturator membrane so easy and the sort

of border margin of the obturator

foramen which this big hole here and

then laterally it it it attaches on this

line here between the greater and lesser

trochanter so this is the

intertrochanteric line and if I rotate

the model around you can see at the back

its attachment so it attaches just a bit

proximal to the intertrochanteric crest

so that's the the attachments of the

joint capsule and it's really important

to know the attachments of the joint

capsule because the main blood supply to

the head of the femur comes from vessels

that travel underneath the capsule along

the neck so if you remember I talked

about the blood supply that comes into

the into there directly into the head by

the ligamentum teres or the ligament to

the

of the femur but that that's not a big

that's not a big amount of blood supply

so the main blood supply is through

these vessels which come underneath the

joint capsule up up the neck so this is

important because if a fracture of the

neck of the femur is intracapsular so

within the boundaries of these

attachments then the blood supply to the

head of the femur can be compromised and

you can get a vascular necrosis which

just means death of the tissue because

of a poor blood supply or disrupted

blood supply so if the if a factor

occurs outside the boundaries of this

joint capsule so extra capsular then

it's unlikely that the blood supply

would be compromised

so you've got three ligaments which

reinforce this joint capsule you've got

the iliofemoral ligament the pooh-bah

femoral ligament and the issue femoral

ligament so the iliofemoral ligament is

this ligament here and this attaches

just between anterior inferior iliac

spine and the sort of margin of the

acetabulum so you can see the anterior

inferior iliac spine here and the

attachment of the iliofemoral ligament

and it's got this kind of Y shape so you

can see this just isolate it so you can

see this Y shape of the iliofemoral

ligament and attaches on this

intertrochanteric line and then we've

got the pooh-bah femoral ligament so

that's this ligament here which I've

just isolated and this attaches on the

iliopubic eminence and attaches onto the

the femur and if I rotate the model

posteriorly

we can see this final ligament the issue

femoral ligament so this attaches at one

end to the ischium and at the other

attaches to the greater trochanter

so this ligament here

so that's the hip joint