the

ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate - Cell Energy

in this video we're gonna talk about ATP

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate

ATP has three subunits the first one is

a five carbon ribose sugar and that is

attached to a nitrogenous base this

nitrogenous base is called adenine and

attached to the ribose sugar there's

three phosphate groups so that's the

general structure of ATP now when you

combine the ribose sugar and the

nitrogenous base adenine you get a

nucleoside and that nucleoside is called

adenosine now because we have three

phosphate groups on the left this is

called tri phosphate try for three so

that's we have the name adenosine

triphosphate a nucleotide has three

parts a ribose sugar a nitrogenous base

and the phosphate group so ATP is a

nucleotide it has three phosphate groups

instead of one now ATP is the energy

currency of all cells cells use the

energy stored in ATP to power necessary

activities such as driving endergonic

reactions or actively transporting

substances across cell membranes or just

movement in general and so ATP is a very

important the cell uses it as a form of

short-term energy storage so here we

have the actual structure of ATP above

the energy stored in ATP can be found in

the high-energy phosphate bonds these

phosphate bonds are unstable and so

they're ready to react they have a low

activation energy the reason why they're

unstable is due to the presence of all

of these negative charges on the oxygen

atoms of the phosphate groups so these

negative charges

repel each other like charges repel

opposite charges attract and so due to

this electrostatic repulsion the bonds

in the phosphate groups are unstable

they're ready to break and so this

molecule has a lot of stored potential

energy that's ready to be released and

the way we could release that energy is

by releasing a phosphate group when ATP

converts into ADP it's going to release

a phosphate group plus energy some of

that energy will be used to drive and

organic reactions in cells and some of

it will be lost as heat now this is a

hydrolysis reaction so it requires water

so the overall reaction looks like this

it's a tea pleat excuse me ATP rather

plus water turn it into ADP plus

phosphate plus energy so that's a

hydrolysis reaction now because energy

is released in this reaction this is

known as an exergonic reaction now let's

talk about the reverse reaction that is

make an ATP from adp so when we combine

ADP or adenosine diphosphate with

phosphate and if we put energy into the

system some of that energy is going to

be stored as ATP and water is going to

be a product as well because we're using

energy to make this reaction work this

is an endergonic reaction so make sure

you understand that exergonic reactions

release energy and let me just write

that and endergonic reactions absorb

energy or take in energy so when ATP

converts into adp energies released

that's an exergonic process when we're

making ATP or absorb an energy to do the

to do that so that's an endergonic

process ATP

is produced in mitochondria which can be

found inside of cells on the right we

have a diagram with an enzyme known as

ATP synthase ATP synthase is a protein

that is embedded in the inner membrane

of the mitochondria this protein based

enzyme is responsible for the production

of ATP and here's how it works

protons from the intermembrane space

flow into this enzyme and out to the

mitochondrial matrix as it does so the

energy that is captured from the flow of

protons some of it is used to spin this

rotor which smashes adp MP into ATP and

so that's how ATP is made this process

is known as chemiosmosis if you think of

osmosis osmosis is a type of diffusion

in this example there's two driving

forces here the first one is the

concentration gradient the concentration

of protons in the intermembrane space is

high whereas the concentration of

protons in the mitochondrial matrix is

low and so by diffusion the hydrogen

ions will flow from the intermembrane

space into the mitochondrial matrix the

second driving force is an electrostatic

force because we have a high

concentration of protons the inter

membrane space will have a net positive

charge and because we have a deficiency

of protons in the mitochondrial matrix

this is going to be less positive or

more negative so the two driving forces

here we have a concentration gradient

and an electrostatic attraction the

hydrogen ions will be attracted to the

negatively charged mitochondrial matrix

and so that's going to cause these ions

to flow into ATP synthase as it does so

some of the energy that is captured for

NetFlow will be used to create ATP so

some of that energy is stored in the

form of ATP so that's how ATP is made

inside the mitochondria do an enzyme

known as ATP synthase and the process is

called chemiosmosis so that's it for

this video that's all I got regarding

ATP