Energy in our Cells - ATP

hi guys this is mr. Hurst here and

today's focus is going to be on cell

energy and life now all living things

need energy to survive without that

energy well they would be dead where

does that energy come from well that

energy comes from food ultimately that

food comes from the Sun our key concept

here is that where do plants get the

energy they need to produce food well

they get that energy from light they get

that energy from the Sun this is an

amazing process just the fact that

plants can take in light and make food

from that that is amazing

ah we have two types of organisms we

have our autotrophs and we have our

heterotrophs organisms such as plants

which can make their own food we call

those autotrophs and organisms such as

animals like you and me they need to eat

their own energy they we need to obtain

our own energy we are called

heterotrophs now those two are very big

words so let's go ahead and break those

down a little bit the word Otto

that means self the word hetero that

means other and the word trough well

that means food source so you put those

together a little bit and you get

autotroph self food source well now it

makes sense plants are able to make

their own food as opposed to us

heterotrophs heterotrophs our other food

source we need another food source we

can't make our own food we need to find

it from somewhere else

ATP is is the energy molecule of

ourselves it is an important chemical

compound that cells use to store and

release energy it's it's scientifically

known as adenosine triphosphate which is

abbreviated ATP ATP is used by all cell

types as their basic energy source now

let's go ahead and investigate what ATP

actually is lit in a little bit more

detail you see this this this yellow

block of stuff right here that is our

adenosine that is the backbone of our

ATP molecule then we have this this guy

right here

he acts like a binder he holds things

together that is a ribose enters our

that is our sugar molecule that helps to

hold the whole molecule together he's

like he's like the nucleus that stores

that disturbs the drink man you know

he's just like he's like the fun guy the

party he holds things together for us

and then finally we have our three

phosphate groups these are P P and P

each one of those P stands for a

phosphate therefore we have three of

them they are the area that actually is

responsible for storing and releasing

the energy let's talk about that in a

little bit more detail but first we can

have energy that comes in all sorts of

sources we have energy that comes in in

forms of light heat and electricity this

here is a picture that's representing

energy that's coming in from the Sun

that's our light energy it doesn't seem

like we can walk around and get much

energy from light but but believe it or

not light holes

a whole lot of energy and then we have

energy from heat that is something that

we can actually feel when we feel warm

that is actually energy heat can do

stuff for us that that that has the

ability to be energy and then finally we

can store energy in chemical compounds

as well if you don't believe me well if

you think about it like this when you're

putting gasoline in your car or when

your parents supporting gasoline in your

car they're putting this liquid

substance that liquid substance is is

nothing unless it's burned it is

chemical energy that is stored inside

the chemicals so in a sense ATP is a

little bit like gasoline it's stored

energy ATP ATP has two phosphate groups

so this molecule right here on the left

that is adp that is adenosine

diphosphate a cell can add energy or can

store energy by adding a phosphate group

to a GP what happens when we add a

phosphate group to ATP well then we get

adenosine triphosphate die think of like

by bicycle two wheels try three wheels

tricycle so once we add on another

phosphate group here I have a

representation of that phosphate group

being added into our adenosine

diphosphate we we get adenosine

triphosphate where we have now three

phosphate groups that is the storage

molecule for energy it doesn't store a

whole lot of energy but nonetheless that

is what our cells are going to use for

energy you can think of it kind of like

this well well here adenosine

diphosphate is like a battery that's not

charged all the way and fine and when

you charge it up you get a battery

that's charged all of the way

so it's sort of like adenosine

triphosphate is sort of like a battery

it's a storage it stores energy it's a

storage unit for energy now how do our

cells release energy our how does ATP

release energy

well energy stored in ATP is released by

breaking the chemical bond between the

second and third phosphates so here I

have this is phosphate one this is

phosphate two and this is phosphate

three right here

our cells will break off this bond right

here and it will release energy well why

does it happen well because these

phosphates don't like to be bound

together they're sort of like a spring

the more you push a spring together the

more that it's going to want to zoom

right back at you right well

you push these phosphates together too

much and the the the more that they want

to come apart so these phosphates won't

phosphate one two and three they don't

like to be bound together so our cells

can easily rip off the bond between the

second and third phosphate and and tons

of energy is released it's sort of like

a spring is if you were to compress that

spring and then suddenly all that energy

from the spring is released so that

happens right here between the second

and the third phosphate so what is the

role of ATP and ourselves well we have

tons and tons of rolls of ATP in

ourselves the energy from ATP is needed

for most cellular activities pretty much

almost everything requires ATP active

transport we talked about that in our

last unit where we have we need things

that that cross the cell membrane we

need to make proteins protein synthesis

that is a scientific word for making

proteins making proteins requires energy

and muscle contraction the ability for

me to just simply go like this and

contract my muscle requires ATP almost

everything in our body needs ATP ATP's

characteristics make it a

ceptin aliyou SFIL as the basic energy

source of all cells in fact you know

what I'm going to go ahead and and

abbreviate a TP as the energy currency

of cells you know why if you think about

it ATP is a little bit like money in the

fact that almost everything that you

need you do on a daily basis requires

money and so basically everything that

the cells need to do require money so it

is the energy currency of cells now how

do we use that biochemical energy most

cells have only a small amount of ATP

because it's not a good idea it's not a

good way to store large amount of energy

so we actually store large amounts of

energy as fat but when our cells

actually need that energy we're going to

break down that fat and we're going to

make ATP molecules cells can regenerate

ATP from ADP pretty easily so ADP is a

small mahse is a molecule that is like

that battery that's not fully charged

we can easily our cells can easily put

that phosphate right back on jam it

right back on and make ATP so it's

usually not that tough of a thing to do

we use I have a picture of sugar

primarily we use sugar to do that sugar

is mostly glucose glucose will break

down into several different compounds

and in the process of breaking down

glucose we release ATP into ourselves so

glucose ultimately is where the energy

is stored but in order for us to get

that energy so that we can use it we

need to break that glucose down into ATP

here I have some sugar CNH interesting

enough some interesting facts is that

seeing H stands for California and

Hawaii because back in the

day the United States used to get most

of our sugar from Hawaii that Hawaii

would grow the sugar and then Hawaii

would transport the sugar to California

where it would be processed so that's

where ch sugar actually gets its name

from so let's go ahead and review

organisms that can make their own food

are called

what do we think guys those aren't

autotrophs autotrophs can make their own


most autotrophs obtain their energy from

sunlight now the reason I said most and

not all is because I have a picture here

of a underwater geyser this this is lava

spewing up from the bottom of the ocean

and this this is a lot of heat there's a

lot of heat here and there's a lot of

different kinds of compounds here there

is bacteria that lives on the bottom of

the ocean it's actually really cool this

bacteria that lives on the bottom of the

ocean can use the energy from that guys

are right there so even though it's not

getting the energy from the Sun it is

getting in the energy from the earth so

not all autotrophs yet have to get

energy from the Sun but most do most

organisms will capture their energy from

the Sun how has energy released from ATP

one phosphate is removed how is it

possible for cells to function with only

a small amount of ATP while ATB can be

quickly regenerated from adp into adp so

that that extra phosphate can be quickly

jammed right back on to that ATP and

thus we have our energy source now this

concludes our focus on cell energy this

has been mr. Herbst and I'm signing off

folks thanks for tuning in have a nice