the

Chemical Energy and ATP (regular biology) updated

okay so the topic of this video is going

to be chemical energy and a molecule

called adenosine triphosphate ATP you

know here's a structural drawing of an

ATP molecule and here's kind of a more

three-dimensional realistic diagram of

an ATP molecule so what we're gonna do

is we're going to learn about this

molecule called ATP let's get started

alright as we discussed chemical energy

and ATP our food that we eat will be you

what will supply the glucose and the

lipids that are required to build ATP

molecules so you know in the picture we

have a plate of pasta here you know

pastas high in carbohydrates and glucose

is a carbohydrate

well there's also lipids in the foods

that we eat and so glucose from our

foods and lipids from our foods are

gonna be used to build ATP molecules

adenosine triphosphate and so energy for

our cells to do work will be stored in

the bonds of an ATP molecule so here's a

molecule of ATP and particularly you can

see the three phosphates member it's

called triphosphate you can see the

three phosphates on the left of this

diagram that's typically where the

energy for cells to do work is going to

be stored in between those bonds holding

the phosphates together and so if we

look at this more simplistic diagram

right here we can see adenosine

triphosphate the blue peas there's three

phosphate three peas stuck together

and the my notes say that energy is

released when that third phosphate is

broken off and so that third the bond

that holds the second to the third

phosphate together the bond that holds

the second P to the third P that bond is

fairly unstable and it's easily broken

and watched this when that third

phosphate is broken energy is released

energy usually in the form of heat is

released and that heat will kind of

stimulate cells to to do various

functions and notice what's left over

you have two broken remains of ATP left

over and when you have the

a will you have the adenosine

diphosphate I hope you see why it's

called diphosphate dye is a prefix that

means two so the molecule on the left

that's left over

it's called adenosine diphosphate and

there's that broken off phosphate on the

right still okay so now that that third

phosphate has been broken off ATP can

actually be recreated

so notice you have adenosine diphosphate

ADP on the left and that broken

phosphate on the right well with the

addition of energy from the food that we

eat in various enzymes that broken

phosphate can be reattached to recreate

ATP this way our cell can have more ATP

for more energy so if we again take a

look at an ATP molecule here well when

that third phosphor phosphate is broken

off that's going to release energy for

ourselves to do work and then what

you're left over with are the broken

pieces you have the adp and that broken

phosphate well with energy from the food

that we eat that broken phosphate can be

reattached to adp to recreate a teepee

now this is actually called the ADP ATP

cycle this process continues over and

over from from birth until death okay

when we look at the process of digestion

you know digestion the think about the

purpose of digestion and simply break

the food that we've eaten into usable

molecules once the food that we've eaten

has been broken down into usable

molecules those usable molecules will

hopefully help create ATP and so here's

a hamburger pretending to just eaten

this hamburger for lunch if we zoom into

the hamburger you know we can see that

you know there's complex sugars inside

of hamburgers and a complex sugar is

again made up from smaller simple sugars

a complex sugar you might remember is

actually called a polysaccharide and the

simple sugars if you recall are called

monosaccharides well through the

digestion that complex sugar will get

broken down into its simple sugar

components well let's just folk

on one simple sugar so if we just focus

on one simple sugar through the bra

through the breakdown of this one simple

sugar for instance glucose glucose is a

simple sugar through the breakdown of

glucose ATP is going to be created now

higher calorie foods will produce more

ATP molecules because higher calorie

foods have more of those glucoses in

them and so of course the more glucose

there is the more ATP will be created

now when we look at here's a diagram of

glucose you know one molecule of glucose

through a process that we're gonna learn

later on this chapter called cellular

respiration one glucose molecule will

actually be used to make up to 36 ATP

molecules and it's even more when you

look at a lipid here's a triglyceride a

lipid remember triglycerides are 3 fatty

acids connected to a glycerol head and

so one triglyceride can actually yield

up to 146 ATP molecules so you see we

get a lot more ATP from fats now that

doesn't mean we go out and eat a lot a

lot a lot of fats to make more and more

and more ATP because there's always so

much ATP we can use in a day if our body

produces more ATP than can be used of

course the energy will be stored and

stored in the form of fat now what about

proteins you know proteins are common in

the foods that we eat but notice how how

you know the proteins are not usually

digested to build ATP when you look at a

protein here's a picture ever again of a

chain of amino acids which is what

proteins are made from when you look at

a picture like this when proteins are

broken down those amino acids are

usually going to be used for other

processes so those amino acids I have I

have to be used elsewhere so the ATP

typically comes from the carbohydrates

in glue and glucose that we eat and from

the lipids that we eat

so to kind of wrap up this video here

when we look at the energy on earth it

really starts with the Sun so most life

on Earth relies directly or indirectly

on the Sun I do say most because there

is this peculiar group of creatures in

the deepest bottomless parts of the

ocean we'll get to those in a moment but

most life relies either directly or

indirectly on the Sun you know I thought

these were just very pretty images right

here various images of our Sun taken

from NASA satellites different light

filters on them showing the different

kinds of energy that the Sun can give

off well when we look at directly

organisms that directly rely on and the

Sun for energy would be autotrophs such

as plants no plants are not the only

autotrophs but the most common want and

plants obtain energy directly from the

Sun by doing photosynthesis so do some

cyanobacteria there's some

photosynthetic bacteria so do algae

these are things that directly get their

energy from the Sun indirectly let's not

forget that you know consumers

heterotrophs such as this animal this

rabbit here you know rabbits are

herbivores and they eat plants and then

plants feed directly on sunlight so the

rabbit doesn't get energy directly from

the Sun the rabbit gets energy directly

from the plant the plant gets energy

directly from the Sun let's not forget

the meat-eaters out there such as the

wolf you know the Wolves get energy

indirectly from the Sun wolves get their

energy directly from rabbits or some

other small you know rodent perhaps a

mouse or something or a rat so wolves

will get their energy directly from

eating some kind of smaller animal which

that smaller animal before it was caught

by the wolf you know fed on a plant

which got its energy directly from the

Sun so like my notes say most life

relies on the Sun directly or indirectly

but the exceptions would be the keema

troves you know here's a picture of an

underwater hydrothermal vent and you can

see that some black smoke billowing out

of this hydrothermal

a little crack in the crust and so all

this smoke is coming out from the mantle

of the earth and there are organisms

down there called keema Tropes well

first of all it in that black smoke

there are there's a gas that called

sulfides that are being released in into

the the ocean water there are bacteria

down there called keema troves that will

feed on those sulfides so there's a

unique group of bacteria that will feed

on those sulfides in order to make their

ATP and this is a process called

chemosynthesis and the bacteria that do

chemosynthesis are called keema troves

but even though this is a rare exception

I do want to stress the top of the notes

most life on Earth relies directly or

indirectly on the Sun to make their

energy so there you go you can pause

this video and you know try to answer

these questions if you're in my biology

class put your answers on a separate

sheet of paper I'd love to check your

answers before school or after school

for accuracy good luck