Science Of The Soul - Full Documentary

what is the soul where is it can you

measure it touch it

recreate it do near-death experiences

reincarnation and unexplained brain

activity indicate the existence of the

soul these are questions that have

intrigued and haunted people since they

first walked the earth today in the 21st


experts are closing in on some answers

using new technology and new

understandings to unlock the secrets of

the soul


21 grams less than one ounce a weight

attributed to the sole by a Boston

physician in 1907 dr. Duncan MacDougall

conducted a ghoulish experiment he

watched six people die

dr. mcdougal wanted to know whether the

soul existed so he built a delicate

scale to determine whether humans got

lighter at the moment of death in just

one of the deaths MacDougall recorded a

weight change of less than one ounce 21

grams his experiment got a tiny mention

in the New York Times more of a

curiosity the news although no one since

has been able to duplicate MacDougall's

McCobb test it's still remembered today

as the first time that modern science

attempted to quantify the existence of

the soul

cultures since the beginning of

civilization haven't needed nor relied

on scientific evidence of the soul a

core belief for most cultures and

religions is that when our bodies die

there is an immortal part of us that

remains past death our soul all the

world's great major religions talk about

us as being souls as truly being

spiritual beings that are incarnated

here in our bodies and that the death of

our physical body is not the death of us

it's the death of the body that that us

that special spark that is us I call

that the soul it leaves there's a lot of

question right now about how much of the

irrational mysterious supernatural

aspects of life we can explain through

science and many many scientists are

directing their attention toward those

questions and I applaud that but I also

think that religion is a language for

the stuff that we don't understand and

one of the reasons that religion is so

fascinating to me is that it is by

definition paradoxical oxymoronic like

things don't fit rationally together you

want to live forever and you want to

keep changing you want to have an

immortal soul and you want to hug your

grandma you know you want these things

don't fit together they're not rational

to trace the history of the modern

Western view of the soul the trail

begins in the 3rd century BC Alexander

the Great swept across Europe and Asia

and Greek thinking the spread like


the Greeks above all others set the

stage for what we believe about the soul

today the Greeks believed that your body

was unimportant in fact even bad it was

the place where all of your most bass

impulses resided so lust greed hunger

childbearing everything that was yucky

about human life resided in the body and

everything that was good and true about

human life resided in the soul which was

in the head so when you died your soul

ascended to God and your body resided in

the ground you didn't need it anymore

the Greeks believed in reincarnation

that the soul can move on to a new body

as Christianity conquered the world the

Greek idea of body and soul being

separate things was eclipsed by the

evolving Christian notion that body and

soul are part of the same whole because

the in the Greek context you had your

soul your soul went up to heaven after

you died and your body was dirt dust the

Christian teaching is that your body and

your soul are one thing you can't have

one without the other together they make

you you Christian ideas of what does my

soul look like raised questions that

people joke about but it remains one of

life's great mysteries where we go and

what we are

we die and which me is my soul am i me

when I was 26 or am i me when I am 80 am

i mean with my wrinkle so remind me

without my wrinkles you know am i me

with my cancer am i me without my cancer

you know those questions start to get

people hung up and then they start to be

kind of funny and silly but the yearning

itself is real and powerful so it's it's

a conundrum like all of these things

Christian beliefs eventually deviated

even further from the Greeks who

considered the soul separate from the

body like an energy force Christian

souls were more like ghosts with shapes

I can Dante's Inferno etc you see all

these Souls they seem like bodies Dante

can recognize them but you know their

souls their souls that are shaped like

bodies so they have taken on a certain

amount of syllogism which I think shows

how hard it is for Christianity to

separate body and souls that even these

souls which were pronounced as

completely immaterial there's no matter

in them nevertheless they can be

perceived that way the West inherited a

combination of Greek and Christian

apocalyptic ideas about what the soul is

which is more confounding today than it

was in its own time if the soul leaves

the body after death where does it go in

the years or even centuries it may have

to wait until the day that Jesus returns

to judge the living and the dead what do

you do in the period between the Last

Judgment and you know when a person dies

well what is the soul just on itself I

mean how do we envisage the soul without

the body it's very very difficult

with the scholars of early Christianity

say for example is that we've made it

into a mush that in those days you know

there was a word for resurrection which

meant resurrection and there was a there

was a combination of words for

immortality of us all which meant

something different and now when we talk

about heaven and afterlife we mush it

all together and we mean heaven and we

mean resurrection and we mean

immortality of the soul and we mean

seeing grandma and we mean seeing Jesus

and we mean hearing harps and and we

don't disentangle these ideas but in the

ancient world they were very distinct

ideas and you were either in the

immortality of the soul camp or you were

in the resurrection camp since

resurrection involves bodies and

immortality involves Souls Rennie

Descartes tried to reconcile the two by

focusing on consciousness in the 17th

century he famously wrote I think

therefore I am since then scientists

believed that if there is a soul it

resides somewhere in the brain but they

haven't found it yet and today we're

still grappling with the problem is the

existence of the soul a question for

science or religion to answer

religion is a way for us to talk about

and think about those aspects of human

life that are beyond us and so let

science keep probing because it must and

yet let us keep acknowledging through

whatever language works for us whether

it's poetry or art or religion that

there are aspects to the human

experience into human yearning that

failed to meet categories and I think

the soul is one of those things we want

to believe that there's something

special about us that lives forever and

we want to believe that we will commune

with those we love at some later point

we don't want to lose those people and

those yearnings are powerful and

important those yearnings require that

consciousness be something separate from

the brain that it is something not

material but magical the spiritual among

us believe one thing I have seen men

women old young all face all gender

orientations atheist believers all

religious traditions I believe it is a

universal human phenomenon it's part of

being human that we are all souls and

that each soul sometimes has the

capacity to have a spiritual experience

in certain circumstances the scientific

among us hold another view I don't think

consciousness is some supernatural soul

that is not measurable scientifically

that somehow associated with our natural

brain I also don't think there's a

mystical world beyond what we can

measure if something actually exists

then it's part of the real world and

ultimately we should be able to detect


a Louisiana boy offers incredible

evidence that should satisfy both sides

of the soul debate his case offers proof

of the soul is real that it can be

reincarnated and that science can study

it according to a 2007 Pew Research

Center poll eighty-one percent of

Americans say they believe in an

afterlife forty-five percent believe in

ghosts I personally had an experience

where I saw the spirit of my grandfather

after he died and I haven't gone to the

place where I believed it was true and

yet it felt true to me it felt real to

me and I am very sympathetic with those

feelings that people have you know they

see the ghosts or the spirits of people

they've lost they have a traumatic

physical experience and they see things

and I actually think that soul is more a

matter of faith and proof today

scientists are studying people who make

a compelling case that they used to be

someone else at the University of

Virginia a group of psychiatrists use

science to unlock the secrets of


since the 1960s the division of

perceptual studies has been collecting

cases of children who claim past life

memories they now have files on 2500

children well I think what the research

shows is that for people who are open to

considering the possibility that there

is evidence that consciousness at times

can exist separately from a functioning

brain so in the cases that these

children's reports as you look at the

the best cases they provide evidence

that at times there can be this

carryover of memories and emotions that

seem carried over from one life and and

continue on and another may 2000 life is

Louisiana a mother awakens to hear the

screams of her two-year-old son was

laying on his back and he was kicking

his feet up like this and pounding his

fists like this just kicking and kicking

and screaming at the top of his lungs

and realign anger cannot soothe her baby


eventually he falls back to sleep she

thinks the nightmare is over but really

it is just beginning

then the next night he had another one

it was the exact same thing that the

same exact kicking motion and the more

he had it the more bizarre it became

because it was so so specific and so

repetitive this marked the start of one

of the best documented cases of possible

reincarnation in history today James

Leininger is 12 I play sports baseball

soccer go to ascension Episcopal School

I have a lot of friends there other kids

when they were younger say I want to be

a fireman I want to be an astronaut but

I was always I want to be a fighter

pilot I want to be in the Marines

pictures yeah well they came out nice

from the age of 3 James's parents began

to hear stories from their son that

shocked them that their son was

recalling things that connected him to a

Navy pilot who died in 1945 they were

skeptical Bruce is an HR manager in the

oil industry andrea is a former

ballerina turned instructor as

Christians they never believed in

reincarnation but they began to piece

together an amazing story

the first clue came from the terrifying

non-stop nightmares that James began

having at the age of 2 he was saying

airplane crash on fire little man can't

get out airplane crash on fire little

man can't get out that's why I was like

oh my god is that what he's been

dreaming this entire time what he was

saying wasn't registering as much on me

and what he was what he was doing he was

flailing around in bed and I remember

the very specific thought I had at that

point this looks like The Exorcist he

was freaking out I had this thought he

possessed what is going on here within a

year the visions that greeted James in

his nightmares began taking shape when

he was wide awake

I was reading to James and then he sat

up he goes mama the little man's going

like this and he laid down and he goes

and he did the same thing he did in this

dream he's he's kicking his feet up and

he goes little man's going like this who

can't get out can't get out and they sat

him back up and I said who's the little

man he goes me it still makes my hair

stand up and Bruce says what happens

you're playing he said it crashed on

fire and he said why did your airplane

crash and he said it got shot Bruce said

who shot your plane he went oh the

Japanese James then gave his parents the

next uncanny clue one that was very

specific the name of a ship from which

he says his aircraft took off so I said

well did you boat have a name and he

said Natoma and I I've never heard the

word before and I went down the hall and

got onto the computer and googled it and

down around hit 300 all there was this

thing at the tomah baek's CVE 62 clicked

on it and up comes this history of a

World War two aircraft carrier and so

that was the beginning of what the heck

is going on here standing there staring

at this picture of this little it was

like an aerial photo of this little

aircraft carrier in the water I'm just

stood there staring at it for a long

time I had no answers you know how could

he know this how could he know a person

how could he know ship and what did all

this means so that was where I really

just said I'm gonna get to the bottom of

this I don't know how I'm gonna do it I

don't know what I'm gonna find but I'm

not gonna stop looking until I get as

many answers as I can get this was

enough to send Bruce on an investigation

doing his own research over the next two

years he learned about the men from a

Natoma Bay both living and

and James kept giving his parents

additional tantalizing eerie clues well

I kept asking him do you remember what

your name was do you remember what your

name was and he always said James and

that thought well he's too he's confused

he thinks I'm asking him what his name


then James started drawing that was one

of my mission things mission thing you

remember that yeah that's one of my

favorite ones the same thing over and

over like a movie compressed all into

one frame an air battle flak a plane on



and his signature James three so one day

I was in the kitchen I was washing

dishes James had breakfast and and hit

the airplane he was just flying around

like this and he goes mama before I was

born I was a pilot my airplane got shot

in the engine and crashed in the water

and that's how I died and I was just

froze it was such a bizarre thing to say

but it was it was just that matter of

fact there was no drama

there was no emotion to it at 3 James

started pretending to be a pilot with an

attention to detail that astonished his

father one day he dragged a car seat

into the closet in my office and he set

up a little cockpit in there he had a

little play school console and like it

was gonna be a cockpit yo and he's going

back and forth all sudden the door comes

flying open and he comes rolling out of

it I said James what happened to you he

says I said you'd folly his no he says

my plane got shot and I bailed out the

next breakthrough came when Bruce was

invited to the Natoma Bay Veterans

reunion he asked about the names of men

killed in battle and this led him to

finally solving the mystery of James 3

he called me on the phone he said you

won't believe this there's only one guy

from the tomah Bay who was killed during

a bat battle for Iwo Jima and his name

was it was James M Houston jr. and I

said wait that would make our James

James 3 I was so excited I'm like that's

it I'm like it that's him

it's James M Houston his name is James

James 3 James Houston jr. World War 2

Navy pilot at age 21 on March 3rd 1945

his plane was shot down over chichi Jima

now the skeptical parents were sitting

on compelling proof that their little

boy really was reincarnated


Louisiana boy James Leininger spent his

childhood recounting memories of being a

world war two Navy pilot memories of a

past life his parents could no longer

ignore from the age of two to six James

continued to provide pieces of evidence

of the incredible possibility that he

was James Houston reincarnated

displaying the Wildcat is the plane that

James in Houston crashed in and he was a

test pilot for Corsair and he would test

fly those off of carriers the f-18 is

the plane I want to fly when I grow up

since he was two James showed an unusual

fascination for military air shows and

an uncanny familiarity with vintage

aircraft his parents cautiously made

contact with James Houston's only

surviving relative his sister and at

first she didn't know what to think

about the little boy who claimed to be

her brother

reincarnated but then James asked her

for a painting that only one person

other than her knew existed she said

this January 16th 2006 says dear James I

do hope that this is the picture you

asked for is the only one of me done by

my mother I am sorry to be so long

sending it to you these past few weeks

have been very busy and hectic I hope

you like it with my love Annie James

believed then as he does now that it was

the dead pilots soul asking for that

picture I had asked her for a painting

that my past mother had done for her and

me this was in her attic for 50 or so

years my parents and she thought it was

crazy that I would know about something

like this

and to became a believer and there were

other more chilling connections

James had three GI Joes he named Billy

Walter and Leon names his Paris thought

were strange for a boy to choose Bruce

is like hey James where do you named

your GI Joe he's just playin he goes

Walter so you're like Walter

Bruce Gus how can be named your GI Joes

Billy Walter and Leon and he goes cuz

that's who met me when I got to heaven

and it was one of the moments were like

the blood drained out there's fate our

face and we just kind of walked

backwards Bruce went in the office I

went in the office we closed the door

he's in there going through papers like

this and like what are you looking for

what are you looking for he finds his

piece of paper and he's like and he says

Billy peeler Walter Devlin Leon Conner

were all in the same squadron as James

Houston I was like when did they die did

they die before throwing papers around

pulls out another sheet and he looked at

the dates of death and they all died

before James Houston died they all flew

with him

although James's dad remains skeptical

that reincarnation might really be

possible what happened next was uncanny

so we're cleaning up the yard he's

playing in the lead I said I just love

you to bits and he goes well he said I

knew you'd be a good daddy when I picked

you and I said what I mean some when I

found you and mommy I knew you would be

good parents

my head was shrinking to the size of a

raisin you know my brain I said what do

you mean when you found it's just why I

found you and mommy I found your mommy

in Hawaii James told his father that he

saw them in a pink hotel which is where

the lining girls were staying when they

decided to have James

Bruce and Andrea were cautious about

asking doctors and psychiatrists for

help they decided to find their own

solution to James's ordeal and their

solution was to go to Japan to the very


ocean where the pilot James Houston Jr



the boat was right above where the you

know the wreckage of the plane was and

Bruce did this beautiful memorial

service and so I thought that was a

perfect moment for me to just say you

know I sat down with them and I said you

know Jim Houston's been a part of your

life for as long as we can remember and

he's always going to be important part

of of who you are but you have a life to

live as James Leininger and it's time

for you to say goodbye and to Jim

Houston and he just started small

started bawling and he cried for about

20 minutes he had every was the saddest

thing I ever seen he had everyone on the

boat crying



good job


good boy

there's such a brave soul such a brave

soul and spirit this is weird when we

got back to shore it was something had

changed they left something there he

really did it was palpable you could see

that he were he was he'd mourned that

and everything that had happened it was

ready to move on and he really did at

that point that's kind of when

everything really changed we're gonna be

the same thing that games in the next

picture that James Leininger drew was

one of peace the nightmares stopped the

memories started to fade I don't want

him to remember anything about his past

life he has a life you know and I don't

want to be bogged down or confused or

he's our son you know it's not he's not

Jim Houston got a life to live today

James Leininger can remember nothing

specific about the soul that used to

torment him

at 12 he is an ordinary boy whose

bedroom says something about who he is

and who he believes he once was I'm

gonna Boy Scouts I'm a first class scout

and the Boy Scouts these are the books I

got from chichi Jima yearbooks BB gun my

money bag my phone I don't know when I

got this but this is a my grandmother's

rosary and my Star Wars stuff and a Blue

Angels he doesn't talk much about his

past life memories with his friends but

he doesn't hide it either

if classmates stumble across a story on

the Internet to James

reincarnation is a fact of his existence

it's part of his soul

I believe that the spirit that I used to

have when I was four or five six has

gone away

I'm just James now it's not

I still have James Houston in me I think

but it's not so much the bad history

it's more of the peaceful history of his

life instead of the crashing of the

plane his death I don't really think

about my story so much I just don't

really talk about it people ask me a

question about it I'll answer it you

know I was skeptical the whole way I

still have a hard time really saying

this really has happened you know but it

did so the issue is you know how does it

happen I don't know why it happens we

can sit here and guess about it but the

fact is that it does happen and so

people should be should listen closer

should not just give it up because of

the two-year old saying something that

might sound meaningless to you from the

point of view of the people that we've

spoken to that are attempting to do

something with it

I can understand rational thinking I'm

pretty rational guy this is not

something rational and I had to struggle

with that spiritually but I came to the

conclusion that it's I now have a three

dimensional belief system instead of two

dimensional at the University of

Virginia's division of perceptual

studies dr. Jim Tucker has examined

James Leininger Tucker has developed

what he calls a strength of case scale

for reincarnation and he gives James a

near-perfect score average age when they

first start speaking is 38 months so

usually two or three years old when it

comes out and some of them will talk

about these things anytime day or night

sometimes the cases can start with

nightmares the way they did in James

langurs case some are intrigued many are


some are upset some of the Christian

parents in the United States are kind of

thrown by it but regardless of their


the children will talk about this for

some time and then usually by the time

they get to be five or six they seem to

forget about and then just go on with

their their current life after four

decades in 2,500 cases the researchers

at the University of Virginia have come

to a startling conclusion reincarnation

is real which certainly suggests that

there is a part of us a consciousness

part that may be able to continue on

after the brain dies which would

indicate that the brain may not be the

creator of at least part of our

consciousness but Moroz serve a portal

that the consciousness flows through

that there may be this other piece of

existence separate from the physical

world that there's this consciousness

piece again that may be independent of

the physical world and the physical

brains that it seems to come through dr.

paul de bell is a psychiatrist who

specializes in what's called past life


using hypnotism he's taken countless

patients on a voyage back in time to

souls their bodies have forgotten and he

provides a recent example we'll call mr.

X he had been sexually abused as a child

I NT was really angry about that and so

he came in for a regression so he

suddenly found himself above a castle in

Austria in 1630 he was actually a she

just washing the floors of this castle

de Belle firmly believes that what he is

doing is about finding the soul through

science I think that spirituality today

is in the same point that psychology was

a hundred years ago when nobody thought

that the mind could be understood

nobody's thought dreams could be

understood nobody thought ill mental

illness could be understood because it

was too complex but if we use those same

tools which is methodical systematic

investigation with hypotheses and

experimental proofs that then we'll

begin to gradually make progress

meanwhile skeptics of reincarnation

would say that James Leininger x' case

is circumstantial at best in America

belief in reincarnation is growing part

of this is driven by celebrities who you

know say they believe in reincarnation

Julia Roberts recently told Elle

magazine that she believed she thought

of herself as very Hindu and she talked

about her daughter and how her daughter

clearly embodied somebody else my

personal opinion is that Americans like

reincarnation because comparatively

speaking life here is good and it's one

thing to want heaven which is an eternal

destination somewhere else when life is

bad on earth and you want to get out

skeptics aside to the lining Gers the

existence of the soul does not require

the validation of scientists or


James's experience is proof to them of

the afterlife but the question remains

if the soul exists in every human can it

be found and measured by science one

neuroscientist is blazing new trails

into how the brain works he's looking

for evidence of consciousness in people

who show no signs of consciousness at

all the ancient Egyptians were obsessed

with the afterlife and they maintained

that belief across thousands of years

they believed that our souls and bodies

were so entangled that he needed one

another even in the afterlife

so they perfected mummification they

even stored the mummies internal organs

to keep them safe

they believe the soul was located in the

heart as for the brain they declared it

had no function so they removed it

through the nose and threw it away the

ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus

believed that the soul was made up of

atoms dispersed into the cosmos after


in the 17th century philosopher Rene

Descartes made a revolutionary

declaration when he equated the soul

with consciousness I think therefore I

am if the Egyptians believed that the

soul was in the heart Descartes was

certain that it resided somewhere in the


the field of neuroscience was born

scientists started to poke around

looking inside the human brain searching

for the soul but they never found it no

one is even sure where to look within

the brains 100 billion neurons some

scientists even say it's an impossible

mystery to solve

given the brains complexity but others

are determined to prove that the brain

is the key to unlocking the secrets of

the soul in medical school we were given

a brain to dissect as part of our

anatomy class and they brought out this

preserved brain and formaldehyde it was

my opportunity to do a brain dissection

and you have a manual so I put the

manual next to me and they give you a

little pro but ice they tell you okay

first thing to do is start to probe away

from the cortex and gently remove this

layer of cells and I thought to myself

did I just you know peel away what would

have been this patient's recollection of

a summer during a childhood picnic or a

relationship with a particularly

significant person in their lives what

did I just remove from this piece of

brain that was once something what I

think soul and mind are interchangeable

I think as a neuroscientist mind and

brain are interchangeable for 20 years

dr. Adrian Owen has been studying which

parts of the brain are active for

different specific activities but our

mind is a product of the complex brain

that we have I think the reason we feel

that we all have a soul and my soul is

different to your soul is because my

brain is different to your brain

for dr. Owen the brain is the key to

solving the mystery of who we are and

he's trying to prove that by working

with patients in vegetative states have

you looked at some pictures kritz I want

you to try and look all right here's you

and Randy and Walt you're all in your

uniforms chris was an officer and

training at West Point Military Academy

in 2007 his car was rear-ended he nearly

died instead he survived with permanent

brain damage but the Chris that was

there a young bright cadet with his life

ahead of him was gone first you see the

picture of you and your friends and you

can't imagine and your worst nightmares

I've seen families go through this but

until it happens to you you have no

concept asked how heartbreaking it is

there are times when you feel like you

know they're not there other times that

you feel like very strongly that he's

there he's listening making eye contact

with me and it's so hard to pinpoint

where is he is he here is he locked in

you know we don't really have any

answers I don't believe that Chris

doesn't have a soul I think there's that

spark of life that leaves you at the

moment of death is basically what the

soul is and Chris might not have full

conscious be conscious but he's still

here I definitely feel like soul is more

than just consciousness Chris I have a

hammer and a ball I want you to look at

the ball what dr. Owens research is

trying to prove is whether chris is

clinically speaking as conscious now as

he was before his accident

you know his consciousness you have a

big problem lately the only way I can

tell you that I am conscious is through

some sort of action either by

you know telling you or by demonstrating

you know if you take something like

so-called disorders of consciousness

vegetative state minimally conscious

state you don't have those things with

some of these patients that they are by

definition unable to produce the source

of responses that the rest of us would

use to demonstrate them we were



for dr. Owen what began as a simple

study of consciousness turned into an

unprecedented discovery

he conducted tests on a 23 year old

woman in a vegetative state the results

have revolutionized Sciences

understanding of the brain she was the

victim of a road traffic accident and

have been examined periodically for five

months and on each examination had all

of the necessary criteria for a

diagnosis of vegetative state so we put

an fMRI scanner and we asked her to

imagine playing a game of tennis in this

scan when you hit the word tennis I want

you to imagine standing on a tennis

court playing a game of tennis we pick

this task because it's something that we

tried many times in healthy volunteers

and we know this produces quite a

specific activation in an area in the

middle of the front of the brain called

the supplementary motor area and this

area controls upper body movements and

if you lie in the scanner and imagine

moving your body around as you would if

you were playing a game of tennis you

get very strong activation in this area

of the brain so while she was in the

scanner we instructed her that when she

heard the word tennis would like her to

start imagining this task and carry on

until we said rest and when we did this

her brain activated just like a healthy

volunteer so on this basis we concluded

that she wasn't vegetative at all she

was entirely consciously aware that was

pretty exciting and we had another task

that we used it was it was important to

show that this wasn't just an automatic

reaction but if we changed the task the

brain activation would change so we used

a type of spatial navigation task where

we asked her to imagine moving from room

to room in her house and this pretty

much always activates an area deep

inside the brain called the

parahippocampal gyrus in healthy

volunteers never seen it before in a

vegetative patient but

nonetheless when we asked her to imagine

moving from room to room in her house

the parahippocampal gyrus activated just

as it would in a healthy volunteer Owens

groundbreaking work opens new questions

about where consciousness begins and

ends Scotty was a New York City police

officer who was hit by a car in 2002 I

feel he's here when I speak to him I'm I

don't know how to put this and I think

he's still there

oftentimes I sit aside and they say to

myself what is he thinking because he

can't speak to us you know what is he

thinking but I'll give you an example we

have this ball at home he actually kicks

the ball I become the target he will hit

me with it

in the Oh laughs you'll laugh at me and

I feel it's me that is target yes the

same Scotty he just can't get out

is your name Scotty yes or no look at

the card that has your answer

Owen has proven that despite no signs of

outward awareness for some an inner

spark remains and within that

undiscovered brain may be where we find

the soul and for the indigenous peoples

of the Americas humans are the minority

in a world inhabited primarily by

spirits a common thread through these

beliefs from the cherokee to the Haida

is that transformation takes place when

a child is about to harmonize his soul

with the spirit world around him

at this critical moment spirit guides

need an adolescent into adulthood and

the human soul is unleashed in today's

Western society children are born with


the soul and body are linked one of the

central tenets of a Christian faith is

that Christ rose from the dead right and

I think it's very reassuring for people

because they do associate body with

identity to have both the body and soul

and in fact you know in Christianity

it's a very very hard to separate body

soul because you know they're described

as kind of a marriage to each other

professor Alison Gopnik doesn't believe

in the eternal soul but her research

into the uncharted areas of children's

brains has led her to the conclusion

that what some would call the spirit is

closest to us when we are children I'm a

scientist an atheist and materialist I

think everything that's here is

everything that's here but I also think

that many of the feelings and

experiences and intuitions and knowledge

and truth that people have talked about

when they've talked about the soul or

the spiritual or the transcendent those

experiences where we recognize the

meaning and beauty and significance of

everything that's going on around us I

think those are the moments when we're

most like children this is my mission

and I want you to figure out how the

machine works okay gopnik's set out to

solve the problem at what age does

identity switch on when does I think

therefore I am begin wanted to study

infants her colleagues told her she was

wasting her time when I was going to

Oxford when I was a graduate student one

of the people there told me when I first

arrived that this entire research

program I had was useless because babies

didn't have a higher cortex they didn't

have any of the higher brain areas that

we had as adults after 20 years of

research Gopnik has helped prove that

the neurons and children's brains

display more activity than those in

adults where the adult brain is a

spotlight the child is more like a

lantern illuminating in all directions

so there's been a big big change from

this view of babies is what I think of

as being sort of crying carrots sort of

see me vegetables too the ones who were

doing the most learning solving the

hardest problems and doing it incredibly


gopnik believes that preschool children

represent human R&D first studies

indicate that they play and learn with

the same intent

she believes that we learn to survive in

the world as grown-ups and we play to

try and imagine ways to change it it's

as if instead of just looking at one

little part of the world they are

conscious of the entire manifold

everything that's going on around them

at once I think a good way of

appreciating this as an adult is think

about what happens when for instance you

go and travel to a strange place

everything around you is something

that's captivating and engaging and

different and new and you get this very

vivid very wide-ranging awareness of

everything that's going on

once I think that's what it's like to

actually be a baby gopnik's studies have

shown that adult brains only light up

when we are trying to learn something

new and even then only in certain areas

in fact I think one of the interesting

things about us as adults is that we run

unconscious as it were so much of the

time tests have shown that a baby's

brain is lit up most of the time one way

I've put this is to say you know for

children every day is first love in

Paris every step is skydiving every

peekaboo game is Einstein discovering

the theory

I think babies and young children are

genuinely perceiving that aspect of of

the way the world in the universe works

that means that they're the kind of

exemplars of what it means to have a

soul but gopnik's research shows that

when a child becomes self-aware the

brain activity slows down and the

connection with what some call the soul

begins to weaken so between about three

and five you start seeing children

having what we call autobiographical

memory not just remembering information

from the past even newborns can do that

but constructing a narrative that says I

am the same person that I was in the

past and I am the same person I'm going

to be in the future

does the identity that we develop as we

grow eclipse our infant consciousness

where we once closer to our souls

surprisingly anesthesia may hold the

answer to those questions until

relatively recently babies weren't

administered anesthesia now it turns out

that babies actually need more

anesthesia than

relatively speaking than adults do why

what is anesthesia do we really know it

seems that anaesthesia poses its own

mysteries about consciousness and the


an Arizona anesthesiologist stumbled

upon a theory of where his patients go

when they're under anesthesia proving to

him the existence of the soul

I've been practicing anesthesiology for

35 years now and it's still a kick it's

still amazing every time patients lose

their consciousness at the end we wake

them back up and I wonder where did they


but the real question is why are they

conscious in the first place so

anesthesia is a really good tool to try

to figure out what is missing in the

anesthetized patient there we go you

come with us

anesthesia is a mystery it's been around

since 1846 but no one is quite sure

exactly how it works or where we go when

we're put under in the 19th century

people started experimenting with

laughing gas nitrous oxide and they used

it for parties that everybody had a good

time they literally were laughing

constantly and also another gas called

ether diethyl ether leading to ether

frolics when inhaled in low amounts

people got disinhibited and abelian

tanned had a great time and somebody

realized that they have too much they

would become unconscious and actually

insensitive to pain and so a number of

people began to attempt to use these

gases for surgical anesthesia

after years of risky trial-and-error

doctors perfected the drugs but they

didn't understand the science in fact no

one understands what happens to the mind

under anesthesia generally one does not

dream under anesthesia there's no

consciousness you're just gone for the

duration of the anaesthetic you tell me

when you're asleep okay that's a trick

question you can't do one interesting

thing about anesthesia is that patients

who are under anesthesia after they wake

up have no conception of elapsed time

whatsoever and I think the passage of

time is a is a key feature of subjective

consciousness so a consciousness is just

absent it's gone a brain scanner

connected to the patient reveals the

startling clue to how anesthesia works

during the surgery a bright flashing

halogen light is used to help stimulate

brain response the bright light pierces

her taped shut eyelids the EEG monitor

shows that the patient's brain is

responding just as if she were awake you

see that the brain is quite active going

under is not like sleep and this

fascinates Hameroff

I first got interested in consciousness

how the brain produces experience in

college in medical school I was doing a

research elective in a lab studying

cancer and I was looking at how cells

divide power off then learned about

microtubules microtubules are hollow

tubes that can be found in all living

cells thirty years ago he had his Eureka

moment and since then he has formed a

complex theory that microtubules are the

location of what some would call the

soul in my opinion microtubules are the

origin of consciousness specifically

quantum computation synchronized to gama

EEG inside neurons in the brain is the

origin of consciousness Hameroff theory

has shocked the world of neuroscience

he's basically saying that consciousness

may be found and quantified that it has

substance and that it survives the body

I'll stand by this even though it's a

bit controversial it's conceivable that

when a patient has a cardiac arrest or

dies the quantum information that

involves consciousness isn't necessarily

destroyed it may actually just sort of

leak out and remain in the universe and

remain entangled if the patient's

revived then it can go it can go back in

and and patient had a near-death and

out-of-body experience if the patient

dies it's conceivable to me that that

entity which could call the soul remains

entangled indefinitely and so it's

conceivable that the soul is a real

entity in terms of quantum information

embedded in the fundamental level of the


what Hameroff is saying is that the 21

grams myth is basically true the soul

has substance though it can't be weighed

the information can be measured Hameroff

shocking theory has caught the attention

of the world's top physicists who think

that he may have stumbled on to

understanding how the mind and soul

separate complex quantum physics may

hold the key quantum theory is pretty

intriguing and it's not necessarily

consistent with an a simple materialist

understanding of the universe the things

are more complicated than we're aware

but I think people who just immediately

discounted as being sort of mystic mumbo

jumbo I think they're being too quick

with that that quantum theory does

challenge us to try to really understand

the world the physical world at its core

and it may well be more complicated or

or wondrous than than what a lot of

people realize this comes as no surprise

to those who have died and come back to

tell the tale most cultures throughout

time have held that there is something

that survives the body after death 21st

century science is seeking to prove it

science says that consciousness is

limited to and generated by the brain

very clear very straightforward after 10

seconds without oxygen the brain starts

to die after five minutes it's

completely gone but what happens to

consciousness in that precious five


new research suggests that consciousness

might actually leave the brain the

near-death experience in cardiac arrest

says something different it says when

the brain is not functioning then

consciousness can separate from the

brain and is able to gain information

which becomes accessible when you regain

consciousness and that is an astonishing


Yvan casein is a family doctor in

Toronto 30 years ago she nearly died in

a small plane crash in which someone was

killed it changed her life forever we

flew into really bad weather and the

engine stopped working so the plane

started crashing so we were plummeting

down to the ground though there was

terrible turbulence in the air was

shaking and my immediate reaction was

intense terror I was terrified I was

frightened the plane was crashing I was

going to die and what happened was I had

this feeling like my fear was being

pushed out and this calm and peace was

descending upon me and I entered sort of

a paranormal

peaceful state the plane crashed into an

icy lake in a wilderness area hundreds

of miles from the nearest town then what

happened is my near-death experience

deepened suddenly as I was swimming to

shore and starting to freeze I heard

this noise and it was like my

consciousness got whisked out of my body

and I was no longer in my body that was

swimming to shore suddenly I was like

twenty or thirty feet above my body

looking down and it was me still trying

to swim to shore miraculously a

helicopter pilot hearing of a downed

plane came to her rescue she was rushed

to hospital nearly dead from hypothermia

she was immersed in hot water but there

was little hope and it was in that hot

water that my consciousness reentered my

body and what I experienced was

something like this it was like what I

imagined if a genie were sucked into a

bottle that with a loud whoosh I was

sucked in from this expanded place up

there and abruptly sucked into the small

confines of my body

Kayson now combines her medical practice

with helping others who have had

near-death experiences she is convinced

after studying hundreds of cases but the

soul is not merely consciousness it is

an energy force all on its own

every world religion holds the belief

that there is something that survives

the body after death but modern Western

society still rejects near-death

experiences calling them paranormal this

despite the fact that every year

hundreds of thousands of people die and

report the experience

at the time casein did not know whether

she was alone had anyone else had an

experience like this and what is it

called what is this that happened to me

dr. Peter Fenwick has studied the

phenomena of near-death experience for

years initially a skeptic he is now a

believer as far as near-death

experiences are concerned I didn't

believe them they happened in America

they happened in California they

certainly wouldn't happen in London what

we found out was that near-death

experiences are very common so I think

we have to see consciousness no longer

as just a point source generated by the

brain ends at death it may do but I

think the evidence stars beginning to be

against this it looks as if it may split

from the brain at the time of death

Fenwick is doing a study of 1,500 heart

attack patients who have had near-death

experiences he's placed objects in the

ER room that the patient cannot see

unless the patient's consciousness

somehow leaves his or her body according

to his study the mind and the brain are

not the same thing they are separate

although near-death experiences have

been reported for decades it's only

recently that science has been willing

to consider them as evidence of the soul

thirteen million Americans have reported

a near-death experience

the statistics are as high in other

countries and the stories have striking

similarities it was 1972 and what car

was sideswiped by its Hank or a car that

was as big as it sank I to small

fiberglass sports Conners virtually run

over in my own car horribly injured

comatose and near death Howard Tibble

lay in the critical care ward of a

hospital evidently for the next three

days an intense pain er unable to talk

to anybody or correspond in any way I

didn't know where I was and I had no I

don't know what was going on suddenly it

was nighttime I knew it was night

because the lights are on in the ward

and I felt no fear or pain or worry I

heard so many stories of people who came

to me and said that when they tried to

tell somebody about their experience

let's take for example a near-death

experience that perhaps they spoke to

their doctor and their doctor

pathologized it and said that it was a

hallucination or maybe they'd had a

brief psychotic break or maybe that was

some unconscious unresolved neurotic

issues always a negative label which

people who'd had such a positive

experience the label didn't fit they

were not getting validation

this feeling of safety and peace has

been reported in almost all near-death

experiences the next step is also almost

universal and out-of-body experience

fully conscious

the dead person floats around the room

seeing objects that could not be seen

face up on the bed I took myself a

little tour of the ward just floating

around and this wasn't hostile with a

high ceiling and we had they had strip

lights and I floated up to the side of

this strip lamp and he had the word

Osram and I was one foot from it I could

have touched it but I had no hands to

touch it I didn't find it odd or

anything well there you go

Oscar I make lamps you know it's fine

with me the next step for most people is

the souls return to the body bringing a

memory of the experience that is not

like a dream it seems real we use the

word soul as as if it were a sort of

thing that flies away to heaven and it

could be consciousness it could be a

mind it could be a number of things I

actually believe it's the way out from

here to start the journey to wherever we

go but I don't think we have to be

religious to make that journey I've not

been that good in my life you know rock

and roll

clinical studies on near-death

experiences indicate that something

untangles itself from a dying body but

research has a long way to go before

proving that a spirit like something

truly exists whether or not we'll be

able to validate the idea that there is

a soul is always going to be an open

question because of course we never know

for what we do do is we take information

from some of the widest appearances

which we can have and if you take all

those together then you would argue

that's in some way the old idea of there

being different levels within the body

and some of these are able to continue

after death it's a very good hypothesis

yeah 81% of Americans believe in the

soul and yet out-of-body experiences are

marginalized with UFO sightings and

seeing ghosts Fenwick's research aims to

change that he even believes science

will soon be able to prove the existence

of telepathy linked Souls speaking

across space and time do I think the

consciousness can exist outside the

brain well there's lots of evidence to

show that they're all the telepathy

experiments in my field there is what

happens as you approach death and there

was something called deathbed

coincidences the dying person seems to

make a visit to other people but it's

other people with whom they're closely

emotionally attached it's usually a

strong emotional feeling that something

has happened to somebody and the

evidence for this is getting very good

and I suspect in the course of the next

few years will become much more into the

mainstream while some scientists grapple

with the survival of consciousness after

the death of the body others are trying

to touch the soul with the help of a

Shaymin dr. Frank Aiken Hoffer has

traveled to the jungles of Peru to take

a powerful drug that he thinks can help

him measure his soul and he's going to

use 21st century EEG technology to help

him do it my topic is is awakening of

the mind and it's really very dangerous

to say that in scientific form because

it that doesn't seem like a legitimate

scientific topic it's a religious topic

it's field of consciousness the reason

it's somewhat conservative it's touching

this dangerous third rail of science we

are getting very close to what's called

religion so I think there's a resistance

there are not being sure how to bring

scientific methods into this edge where

science studies consciousness but not

just the consciousness that's something

that that really is religion it's

religious experience in recent years dr.

Aiken Hoffer has been intrigued by a

powerful plant-based substance that

massively alters consciousness the

substance is called ayahuasca Don

Guillermo is the local shaman who has

mastered the art of preparing and

experiencing ayahuasca tenemos aqui

famosa Blanca ayahuasca ayahuasca una

planta BC Oh Nadia no los curanderos OTV

Samos para descubrir the sacred those

cool those just have been through the

lament their ayahuasca comes from an

Indian word that means

vine of the soul it's seen by many as a

direct route to the divine

illegal in many Western countries

ayahuasca sportin see depends on the

skills of the shaman who cultivates

harvests and prepares it a comedy same

plant excessively is plant as

intelligent A's pero dentro SI tiene su

Alma cordoza school channel Traverse no

in muchas veces in sueño or intuitive

Amenti yo envision is no spray the

community car ayahuasca is taken in the

form of a potion sections of ayahuasca

vine are crushed and boiled with

chacruna leaves in 30 liters of water

then boiled down

ayahuasca is the leader of liquid that


over the centuries those who have taken

ayahuasca have reported out-of-body

experiences and encounters with beings

that can only be described as Souls dr.

eken Hoffer is focusing his studies of

ayahuasca on the elevated levels of

certain and usually dormant brain

activities that take place under the

drugs influence he has studied the brain

patterns of Buddhist monks and he thinks

they hold the key

Buddhist monks achieve altered states of

consciousness through meditation

the Buddhists believe they reach a

heightened state of awareness that

brings them closer to what's been called

the universal soul doctor eken Hoffer

will be hooked up to the EEG to find out

after he ingests the drug whether there

are measurable changes in the neuron

activity in his brain the EEG is very

sensitive to these subtle shifts in

consciousness there's major pattern

changes that occur in the EEG and I've

made measurements and I found there's

certain very interesting frequencies and

so these frequencies are indicators of

this of this state change that can offer

drinks the ayahuasca potion it takes

about half an hour before its effect

kicks in

when it does he won't be able to

communicate what he is feeling only the

EEG can capture the data in the very

beginning you'll have a kind of subtle

change in how your body feels and then

slowly the psychedelic experiences will

start you might see floating patterns

and then it merges into imagery that

seems to have more complex forms could

be images of people or faces and then it

becomes like a waking dream then there's

another quality of experience it's

called a journey so the journey is where

I think what's happening is an

out-of-body experience is occurring by

that time it's feeling like you are

somewhere else sometimes when you go to

another world to meet an entity of some

kind it's possible you could be taught

things by entities just like in

Christianity we have stories of how

people have been taught things by

angelic entities that have come


it brings Darren Chapman's


as he slips into an altered state

I can ha Art's moving his hands as if he

is conducting an unseen Orchestra his

researchers hope the EEG records this

spike in activity supporting economic

theory that ayahuasca can point the way

to touching the soul

eken Hoffer can recall all the

impressions lost in his own

consciousness the next morning he is

firmly back in scientific mode examining

the story that the EEG data is telling

once the ayahuasca took full effect his

brain entered an even more heightened

state of consciousness okay so we're

starting here and we're going and

searching some part of alpha oh that's

the part whatever he saw beckon Hoffer

may have seemed in a near coma but in

fact his brain was on fire I can hafez

EEG tests prove that in an altered

trance-like state the brain behaves much

like it would in an out-of-body

experience or a religious rapture to him

it this is what it means to see the soul

to me the word soul is more of a Western

formulation Western kind of religious

category actually I feel that soul it's

a meeting place between the the formless

dimension of spirituality in the

physical world perhaps that could be

viewed as soulful or a connecting point

as one group seeks to find evidence of

enhanced consciousness inside their own


another is trying to see if they can

create it by building a brain the

Frankenstein's monster a thinking being

created by science more powerful than

its maker ultimately outcast for being

feared and misunderstood Mary Shelley's

famous monster lives on across almost

two centuries of popular culture because

the story of Frankenstein is a story

that scares us to our very souls dr.

Frankenstein was a Swiss scientist who

was obsessed with a spark of human life

is only fitting that another scientist

has chosen Switzerland to launch a 21st

century equivalent project

for 15 years dr. Henry Markram has been

working on a biology modeled machine

that can think just like we do


dr. Markham is leader of the Blue Brain

Project blue brain uses one of the

world's most powerful supercomputers to

reverse-engineer the human brain many

people asked why are you doing that I

mean why do you want to build a model

and when there's six billion of us out

and what will it be useful for and can

it really be useful and ultimately what

we are after is trying to understand and

learn about the brain and what is

capable of is it really the same as us

is it the same as as a human being as it

doesn't capture it the project's goal is

to mimic the complex structure of the

human brain

in a computer and see if it has the

ability to reason just like we do I

think that what blue brain is

fundamentally different from most models

is that we're not trying to just build a

model in the simplest way possible we're

trying to build a model in the most

biological way possible if an artificial

brain can be created in a biological

fashion Markram says he can't predict

whether it will or will not become a

conscious brain

my strategy is that if we build it

correctly and we understand it from

first principles that it will emerge and

it will speak and it will have higher

brain functions and I don't know it may

or may not have consciousness like dr.

Frankenstein the blue brain team is

using living material to create their

creature not human parts but rats human

neurons are strikingly similar to those

of rats first a rat is decapitated a

thin slice of it's still active brain is

submerged in artificial brain fluid

allowing the brain tissue to keep

functioning for several hours the tissue

is placed under a microscope a single

neuron is extracted then the basic

shapes and reactions of the rat still

living neurons are mapped these graphs

are real images from blue brain showing

the activity of the rats neurons that

the computer has recreated for its own

mind any mechanism we can find in the

own brain we could replicate in a

machine is it conscious some people will

say no it's just a machine it's just a

software a program can't be conscious

other people like myself would say well

we're just a program we have a hundred

billion neurons and we can actually

understand precisely what's going on in

each one the neurons taken from living

rat brains form the template of doctor

Markham's artificial consciousness his

computer maps then imitates the neurons

actions basically Markram is building a

brain one computer-generated neuron at a

time the secret is to look for the rules

and then you don't need to have studied

every single neuron in the brain you

build a model of a hundred of them it's

not a billion and once you build a

hundred you can analyze them and you

analyze their statistics and you analyze

their rules those rules now you can use

to recreate all the diversity villians

so we can actually today create well

over a couple of hundred different types

of mirrors and we can build as many of

them as we want is not limited others

are not so certain that the blue brain

and other artificial intelligence

projects of the future can ever succeed

consciousness some believe is too

complex AI is very interesting you can't

make a horse out of feathers it would be

very tough to make a computer out of

cloth and you can't make a conscious

mind out of silicon chips constructing a

human brain will require a computer

1,000 times more powerful than any

currently in existence it would take at

least three football fields to house

such a computer but Markram says the

goal is within reach to create a

conscious artificial intelligence the

data is there the technology is there to

explore it the computing power has

reached critical mass we have petaflop

supercomputers now 10 to the 15

calculations per second it's the first

time in history that these things are

coming together which is required for

simulation based research when they

converge it's inevitable so this is

going to happen professor Markram hopes

to complete his work on his artificial

brain within the next 10 years

what properties will that brain

ultimately possess will it consider

itself equal to us will it have emotions

or a personality or a Souls when it

comes to thinking about artificial

intelligence of course we all have to

think about that moment when we develop

artificial intelligence it's just a

little bit smarter than we are so maybe

as a consequence once you get the one

that's one step better than we are at

doing all these things it's capable of

producing an AI that's two steps better

than we are and it's then gonna be

capable of producing an AI that's four

steps better than we are and so on and

off you go and you're onto the the kind

of the runaway loop that some people

have called the technological

singularity the singularity is the

moment predicted by futurists when

machines become conscious and more

capable than humanity a dangerous time

when they could conceivably overpower us

even exterminate us though I mean I

think that point of the singularity is

still a number of decades away but as it

approaches I think is gonna do something

we have to really slow down and think

about very carefully if professor

Markram succeeds will blue brain turn

out to be the singularity will it make

human existence better or much much

worse if it is evil will it allow

Markram to turn it off will it be a

soulless Frankenstein that puts its

makers to death

Hiroshi Ishiguro is working on designing

a world where humans and robots are

indistinguishable cañazo

and almost by accident he's challenging

the notion of where people and their

souls begin and end


what I wanna throw either congealing

Ishiguro brings the companion along for

his interview himself this is my Android

and this is Co Geminoid if you Goro uses

silicon steel and mold impressions of

his own body to create a life-sized

version of himself one that could take

his place in the classroom professor

ishiguro teaches at Osaka University he

wants to see how students will behave

when forced to interact with his Android

instead of himself issue Goro can

foresee a day when his androids will not

only enable people to be in two places

at the same time but to join the

workforce to perform unpleasant but

necessary jobs

if your girl has thought a lot about

whether his robots could be advanced

enough to be given consciousness but the

Japanese have a unique view that does

not equate consciousness with a soul

everything has Soros and you know

analogs and you know Wow the chairs and

desks and you know everything's has a

soul I think that is in a fundamental

difference between in Japan and other

countries the human is not so special

with Japanese you know human is a part

of nature that's all

Ishiguro is part of an ancient Japanese

tradition of making life like machines

according to tradition the soul of the

Creator is in the object and in Japan

it's believed the creation too must have

a soul so you don't think in it Thomas

Egan night or Saturday I know new home

didn't tell you no I told him this kind

I know Thomas yachts kalidasan Disney

you I do bonsai nice demo given a nice

demo or Chinese demo submitted his name

you are also use my uterus to you

they beaucoup rava corn ingots good of

the me Thomas you routines me the Hari

issue though the snare serega call Akita


he might accrue obviously what is the

song what is the consciousness what is

intelligence what is emotions my answer

is these things are subjective if we

believe the robot has a soul the robot

has a soul when I never of the humanoid

robot everybody said this robot has

emotion right but I didn't implement any

function of emotion right so obviously

these things are subjective not

objective by giving robots personality

and emotion it can appear to humans as

though they have souls

in Okinawa Japan robots called Paro are

being manufactured by the thousands each

with a unique ability to learn how to

react to human feelings Paro are

companions for Japan's vast population

of elderly people known as robot

assisted therapy the mechanical

companions are equipped with pattern

recognition technology that can read the

mood of their owners and act

appropriately to calm and soothe them

after getting to know its owner

each Paro develops a unique personality

and its own emotional range it's a

computerized simulation of feelings


professor Ishiguro's ultimate goal is to

exceed Burroughs emotions to build an

Android that looks blues and talks like

a real human

apart from his Geminoid he's created a

female Android that has advanced

emotional expressions equipped with

facial recognition software it can even

watch another human being on a monitor

and mimic her expression cost $100,000

per robot but there's a challenge the

program is getting more difficult for

example the body movement this is

natural the reaction is also natural

racket is right however you know the

medical doctor says this is a kind of a

brain-damaged person that we need to

work with the brain scientists and we

need to have a deeper knowledge about

the human then we can prove this robust

the brain contains a hundred billion

neurons stretched out across 100,000

miles of dense blood vessels

neuroscience has only begun to figure

out how it all works while some

scientists actively seek to create

consciousness others are stumbling into

it almost by accident encountering the


in the near future one or the other

might have to answer to the question is

there something that survives the body

well consciousness is mysterious and I

believe when we create non-biological

systems that have that same kind of

behavior in the same complexity and

richness of emotional intelligence which

is also a form of intelligence they will

be conscious as well

if you ask somebody do you believe you

have an immortal soul or do you believe

you have a soul I think that people

would be exposing what are their most

heartfelt hopes their worst fears and so

I think it's much easier for us to focus

on what we can apprehend our

intelligence how smart are we Ike use

you know is that a measure of the soul

certainly is a measure of the reasoning

faculty the intellect so it doesn't have

anything to do with the imagination so

it's a very limited view of what the

soul is and also a very temporal view

meanwhile others believe that the more

we seek scientific answers the more

likely we are to accept the fact that

the soul exists I believe science and

religion are coming together and I think

it's just simply going to take more time

and maybe in another hundred years most

people on the planet will know that the

soul is real what does seem certain is

that artificial intelligence will be

able to think like us and robots to look

like us within a generation if the two

combine humans will live side-by-side

with a new synthetic intelligent species

whether they have souls is a matter of

heated debate either way the 21st

century may well be the age when the

existence of the soul is proven beyond

all dispute whatever the answer the

secrets of the soul are now within

Sciences grasp