What’s Hidden Under the Sand of Sahara?

the word Sahara usually brings to mind a

picture of endless sandy landscapes a

caravan of camels is walking along the

dunes the Sun is beaming brightly as if

for the last time and around you not a

soul it seems as if the golden majestic

dunes have always been here but this

isn't so what secrets does the great

desert hide from humanity and what is

under its hot sands this is hard to

believe but as recently as 6000 years


the arid desert with an area of more

than 9 million square kilometres almost

three and a half million square miles

was covered with a thick green carpet

entire settlements existed and domestic

animals grazed where today there's

practically nothing but hot sand there

were green meadows and lakes rainfall

was so abundant that it fed the river

tamanrasset carrying its waters across

the green sahara to the atlantic ocean

the river with numerous tributaries had

a length of more than 500 kilometers

with 311 miles and would have made the

list of the longest rivers in the world

in 2015 3-dimensional satellite images

help to find the largest Paleo River

thanks to these images scientists

noticed the smooth edges of the ancient

channels of the river hidden under the

modern-day desert and in Central Africa

there was a lake called Lake mega Chad

now nearly a ghost lake of which only

the modern Lake Chad remains and once in

antiquity this lake was wider than the

Caspian Sea extending for almost three

hundred ninety thousand square

kilometers or a hundred and fifty

thousand square miles across the Sahara

if the lake existed now it would be the

largest on the planet the images

published by NASA clearly show how huge

it was the lake forever imprinted in a

desert landscape like a silent reminder

to all of humanity who had a hand in

draining the once deep water reservoir

but what happened why did this once

green and prosperous region suddenly

become the most lifeless place on the

planet scientists have different

explanations for example environmental

archeologist David Wright considers

livestock to be the main cause of

climate change for 1/3 of the African

continent sheep cows and goats trampled

and consumed local vegetation the soil

became more exposed and reflected more

sunlight affecting the atmosphere the

amount of precipitation decreased and

drought began that was the beginning of

the end

droughts slowly but surely destroyed all

the vegetation and the green Sahara

turned into a huge desert region about

the size of the United States but this

doesn't mean that only animals are to

blame perhaps cattle farmers were the

catalyst for a process that had already

begun to destroy the green cover true

not everything is so simple in 2018

another team of scientists put forward

the hypothesis that the ancient herders

on the contrary

prolonged the flowering of the green

Sahara by another 500 years according to

one of the authors of the study seasonal

cattle driving and selective grazing

helped people maintain a declining

ecosystem a third group of scientists

blames the Earth's axis having studied

the dust precipitating off the coast of

West Africa for the last two hundred

forty thousand years they've come to the

conclusion that the climate of the

Sahara and North Africa changes from

humid to dry every 20,000 years as

tilt of Earth's axis changes its shift

affects the distribution of sunlight

between seasons the more solar radiation

the more active the monsoon and the more

precipitation falls during the summer

when there's less sunlight the monsoons

weaken and a moist climate turns into

drought if this is so then after some

ten thousand years Meadows will again

bloom in the Sahara and animals will

graze but the invisible river and the

ghost lake are far from being the only

mysteries that the majestic desert hides

from us earlier in the Mesozoic era the

toughest ocean's seed here dividing the

ancient continent of Gondwana in

Laurasia the ocean receded the

continents were divided the plates move

and on the surface of the sand it seemed

a cemetery of whales remained this place

is now called Wadi el Keeton which in

Arabic means the valley of the whales

you probably will be surprised but

modern whales have ancient ancestors

bacillus aureus had sharp teeth and hind

limbs true their limbs were very small

and not suitable for movement they were

probably the largest predators of their

time because the size of the vasila

sores reached 21 meters or 69 feet

imagine how scientists were shocked when

in the early 20th century they found the

remains of ancient whales in the hot

desert along with fossils of extinct

prehistoric fish snakes turtles

crocodiles and manatees probably their

first thought was someone must have

brought them here but everything turned

out to be much more interesting

the sands of the Sahara keep other

secrets not only did ancient predatory

whales hunt there but once upon a time

dinosaurs also roamed one of the largest

dinosaurs in the world whose age is

almost a hundred million years old was

found here these were the bones of a

herbivorous sauropod which was called

peril a Titan stro Mary judging by the

fossils this giant could reach 32 meters

or a hundred and five feet in length and

weigh up to 60 tons and in 2018 under

the vast desert sands the bones of

another previously unknown dinosaur were

found Mansura soros the discovery was

like an exploding bomb there was very

little data on the last days of the

dinosaurs that lived in africa in the

Late Cretaceous 100 to 66 million years

ago also it turned out that the new

species of dinosaur is very similar to

its European counterpart so it seems the

dinosaur came to Africa from the

territory of modern Europe but how is

this possible

previously scientists were convinced

that the ancient Giants could not move

between continents after they became

separated but this unexpected vine

smashed the accepted theories of

dinosaur migration the newly discovered

species could reach from eight to ten

metres or 26 to 33 feet in length and

weigh as much as an African bull

elephant up to six and a half tons today

this find is considered one of the most

significant among all discovered remains

of new dinosaur species and the amazing

discovery of the mansur asuras can

us much more information about the fauna

of that period but perhaps the most

inexplicable mirror of Saharan Africa

and one of the major mysteries of the

planet is located in Mauritania it's a

unique geological formation easily

visible from space called the eye of the

Sahara or Richat structure is a series

of huge concentric rings and has a

diameter of about 50 kilometres or 31

miles the object gained world fame after

it was discovered in 1965 from the

manned spacecraft Gemini 4 since then

the mysterious eye haunts scientists all

these years they've been looking for the

answer to the main question what is the

nature of this structure if this is the

site of the fall of an ancient meteorite

then where's the crater itself and why

are no traces of the impact detected if

this is the mouth of an extinct volcano

that was collapsing inwards for millions

of years then why are volcanic rocks

completely absent very fantastic

theories are also being put forward

about an alien landing site or the

location of Atlantis here but most of

all scientists are inclined to believe

that the structure formed as a result of

erosion but there's a flaw in this

hypothesis the formation ring is too

even and regular nowhere else on earth

has erosion been able to create anything

like this anyway the mysterious eye of

the Sahara remains one of the most

amazing natural phenomena so

whom or what the desert is watching with

the help of this I most likely will

remain a secret the desert is also

silent about the cities and entire

civilizations buried under its sands

traces of which are recorded by

satellites and sometimes discovered by


once upon a time life was vibrant here

portress has stood fields were waiting

to be harvested and livestock graze down

pastures here wild animals roamed in

search of prey and fish splashed in the

rivers but everything has changed now

the desert is completely inhospitable

everyone who tries to explore the vast

expanses of the Sahara feels the

strength of the sizzling Sun and

sandstorms who knows perhaps under the

hot dunes the biggest secret of the

Sahara is still waiting which it

carefully protects from human eyes what

do you think it could be write us a note

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breeze after an exhausting journey

through the hot desert

this is riddle saying until next time