Layers of the Atmosphere (Animation)


layers of the atmosphere


the Earth's atmosphere is the layers of

the gases which protects the earth from

the radiations and cosmic rays coming

from the outer space this atmosphere

acts as a blanket because it keeps the

average temperature of the earth nearly

constant Earth's atmosphere can be

divided into five main layers these

layers are the troposphere

the stratosphere

the mesosphere

the thermosphere

and the exosphere


the troposphere


Trampas means change this layer gets its

name from the weather that is constantly

changing and mixing up the guesses in

this part of our atmosphere

this layer is the closest to Earth's


on average the troposphere extends from

the ground to about 12 kilometers were

7.5 miles I


the troposphere contains about 75% of

all of the air in the atmosphere and

almost all of the water vapor which

forms clouds and rain in this layer air

is made up of approximately 78% nitrogen

21% oxygen and 1% argon with small

amounts of additional gases including

water vapor and carbon dioxide


hot-air balloons fly within the





the stratosphere


Scrat means layer this layer of our

atmosphere has its own set of layers


the boundary between the stratosphere

and the troposphere is called the

tropopause it is the region where

airplanes fly


the stratosphere layer extends from the

tropopause to about 50 kilometers or 32

miles above the Earth's surface


this layer contains a thin layer of

ozone molecules which forms a protective

layer and absorbs harmful ultraviolet

radiation from the Sun


the high-altitude weather balloons

flying into the stratosphere for

monitoring atmospheric conditions and

climate research


the mesosphere miso means middle this

layer is located above the stratosphere

and below the thermosphere


it is the third layer in our atmosphere

which is 35 kilometers or 22 miles thick

the transition boundary which separates

the mesosphere from the stratosphere is

called the stratopause


in the mesosphere fewer air molecules to

absorb incoming electromagnetic

radiation from the Sun most meteors burn

up in this set miss ferric layer

a meteor is piece of rock or matter that

has been broken off in space and travels

through the atmosphere when they cross

the mesosphere friction and momentum

caused the meteor to burn up and appear

as a light crossing the sky


the thermosphere


Thermo means heat this layer has

extremely high temperatures and located

above the mesosphere and below the



the boundary between the mesosphere and

the thermosphere atmospheric regions is

called mesopause it is the coldest part

of Earth's atmosphere


the thermosphere extends from the mess

it was to 700 kilometres of 435 miles

above the surface of the earth


the thermosphere is the thickest layer

in the atmosphere only the lightest

gases mostly oxygen helium and hydrogen

are found here


the aurora and satellites mostly occur

in this layer


an aura is a natural light display in

the sky particularly in the high

latitude regions that is caused by the

collision of energetic charged particles

with atoms in the high-altitude



the exosphere

EXO means outside the exosphere

represents the outermost layer of

Earth's atmosphere


it extends from the top of the

thermosphere to 10,000 kilometers or

6214 miles above Earth's surface


in this lair atoms and molecules escape

into space and higher altitude

satellites orbit our planet


temperature versus height


near the surface of the earth the

average temperature is 15 degrees

Celsius and the temperature gradually

decreases to minus 56 degrees Celsius as

altitude increases then the temperature

remains constant below ozone layer in

the stratosphere region from the ozone

layer the temperature progressively

increases to negative 2 degrees Celsius

then the temperature ranges from

negative 2 degrees Celsius to negative

92 degrees Celsius at the upper boundary

of mesosphere after then the temperature

rises from negative 92 degrees Celsius

to 1,200 degrees Celsius near the upper

boundary of thermosphere


why it happens


during the day a portion of the incoming

of the radiant energy from the Sun

passes through the atmosphere is

absorbed and warms the Earth's surface


then the Heat's reflected back from the

ground to the tropospheric air by

conduction and convection process


the temperature in the troposphere

gradually decreases with increasing

altitude until the tropopause is reached



the stratosphere is very dry and clouds

are rare

as we know ozone is concentrated in this

part of the atmosphere this ozone

absorbs shortwave ultraviolet radiation

from the Sun and converts them into heat


more radiation is absorbed at higher

altitudes compared to the lower


so the temperature increases with height


the mesosphere has the coldest

temperatures in the atmosphere it

becomes cold enough to freeze water

vapor in its atmosphere into ice clouds


the air density in the mesosphere is low

then in the stratosphere below due to

less air particles not enough heat is

absorbed which eventually leads to a

colder temperature


apart from that carbon dioxide in the

mesosphere also helps in making this

layer cold due to its cooling effect


carbon dioxide molecules absorb heat

energy when they bounce off other

molecules the carbon dioxide releases

some of that energy as photons in a

process called radiative emission some

of those photons travel upwards carrying

heat away from the mesosphere thus

temperature in the mesosphere keeps

dropping with increase in altitude until

it reaches about minus 100 degrees



the thermosphere has extremely high

temperatures within the thermosphere

temperatures rise continually to well

beyond 1000 degrees Celsius the source

of the thermosphere heat is radiation

emitted by the Sun the thermistor

absorbs much of the radiation that earth

receives from the Sun leaving only a

fraction to actually reach the surface


ultraviolet radiation visible light and

high-energy gamma radiation are all

absorbed by the thermosphere since there

is little to no atmospheric gases above

the thermosphere there is no absorption

of the heat from solar radiation and so

temperatures so are


the exosphere is almost a vacuum the air

is very very thin air when air is thin

it doesn't transfer much heat to objects

in the air even if the air is very very



the temperature in the exosphere varies

greatly and can range from zero to over

1,700 degrees Celsius it is colder at

night and much hotter during the day


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