The job description focuses on the activities involved in carrying out a job.",

"But a job specification looks at the qualities or requirements the person performing the job must possess.",

"Job specification is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that is KASOs that individual must have to perform the job.",

"Here knowledge refers to factual or procedural information that is necessary for successfully performing a task.",

"For example this course is providing you with knowledge in how to manage human resources.",

"A skill is an individual's level of proficiency at performing a particular task, that is the capability to perform it well.",

"With knowledge and experience you could acquire skill in the task of preparing job specifications.",

"Ability in contrast to skill refers to a more general enduring capability than an individual possesses.",

"Like a person might have the ability to cooperate with others or to write clearly and precisely.",

"Finally other characteristics might be personality traits such as someone's persistence or motivations

to achieve, some jobs also have legal requirements such as licensing or certification.",

"Well in developing job specifications it is important to consider all of the elements of the KASOs. Now coming on how to prepare job specifications.",

"Let us first look at the sources of job specification.",

"Now as with writing a job description the information can come from a combination of people performing the job people supervising or planning for the job and trained job analysis.",

"Now most of the jobs in a grocery warehouse are physically taxing so to describe positions the emphasis is on KASOs related to that challenge.",

"Now to understand this better let us take a sample taken from the Union Pacific website which earlier we understood job description.",

"Now let us take the similar sample to understand job specification.",

"Firstly it lifts the requirements it says you must be at least 18 years old, you must

speak and read English because you will be asked to follow posted bulletins, regulations, rule books, timetables, switch lists, etc.",

"You must pass a reading comprehension test to be considered for an interview.",

"Then it lists the job requirements.

It says you must be able to use a computer keyboard and you must be able to count and compare numbers.",

"You might for example be asked to count the cars on a train during switching, you must be able to solve problems quickly and react to changing conditions on the job.",

"You must have strong vision and hearing including

the ability to see and read hand signals from near and far, distinguish between colors,

visually judge the speed and distance of moving objects, see at night and recognize changes in sounds",

"You must also be physically strong able to push,pull,lift and carry up to 25 pounds frequently and up to 50 pounds occasionally and up to 83 pounds infrequently",

"You will need a good balance to regularly step on and off equipment and work from ladders to perform various tasks, and you must be able to walk sit stand and stoop comfortably.",

"You'll be working outdoors in all weather conditions including snow, ice, rain, cold and heat and frequently at elevations more than 12 feet above the ground",

"Now as we can see as listed in the sample of job requirements all the case source that are required are not directly observable",

"They are observable only when the individuals are carrying out the TDRs of the job",

"Now as we had taken an example of a newspaper photographer.

The TDRs were observable like looking at his action we could observe that a photograph was being taken",

"But to draw conclusions about the person's skill can be only done by looking at examples of his or her photographs.",

"Now accurate information about KSAOs is especially important for making decisions about who will fill a job?",

"A manager attempting to fill a position needs information about the characteristics required and about the characteristics of each applicant.",

"Interviews and selection decisions therefore should be focused on the KSAOs",

"So in this video we focused on the qualities or requirements that the person performing a job must possess.",

"And we listed these qualities as KSAOs."